Pollination is the transfer of male gametes to female part in the flower of plants.
This is a part of sexual reproduction. There are different types of pollination in plants.
But this process is facilitated through agents of pollination.
The pollination agents include wind, water, insects, birds, cattle and even humans (manual or assisted pollination in farms)
The flowers of a plant in general have a single female organ consisting of stigma, ovary and ovule.
While the male part has one or more of stamens which bear the male gametes namely pollen’s in the anthers.
Plants have two types of flowers in this regard. Those having both male and female gametes in same flower. Those plants having either only male or female flowers. These flowers have only one type of organ either male or female.
Types of pollination.
- Self pollination.
- Cross pollination.
Self pollination: Here transfer of pollen occur within the same flower. The pollen grains from male anthers settle on stigma of same flower.
Cross pollination: Here transfer of pollen occur in between flowers. Pollen from one flower fall on the stigma of other flower.
Based the flower in the same and different plants, this is of two types.
a. Geitonogamy: Here the pollination occurs in between two flowers of same plant. That is pollen from one flower reaches stigma of another flower on the same plant.
b. Xenogamy: Here the pollination occurs in between flowers of two plants. That is the pollen from one flower reaches stigma of a flower on another plant.
Agents involved in cross pollination: based on the agents involved in cross pollination, we have following types:
- Zoogamy: here the pollen grains are transferred from plant to another by the help of animals.
- Ornithogamy: Here pollen are shifted from one flower to another due to birds.
- Entomogamy: Here the pollen transfer happens due to insects.
- Hydrogramy: Here water acts as carrying agent for pollen grains. This is of two types as epi-hydrogamy where pollination occur on water surface.
The pollination also happens by air or wind. It also occurs by bats and animals. Even in agriculture, manual cross pollination is done by farmers to enhance yield.