Category Archives for "Analysis"

Chemical analysis is a branch of chemistry which help to evaluate chemical compound. Tests for qulitative and quantitative analysis are discussed

Limit Test for Arsenic with Apparatus and Reaction

Limit Test for Arsenic

Arsenic is a heavy metal that is very harmful. Besides, as an impurity, it also creates instability in pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is impossible to avoid arsenic impurity from being present in the finished products. But, its presence in meager part per million is acceptable So, it is essential to check the limits of arsenic […]

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Mass Spectrometry Principle,Types, Instrumentation & Applications

Instrumentation of mass spectrometry

Mass Spectrometry is an analytical technique used to determine the mass and molecular structure of a compound. Unlike other spectroscopy techniques, here the electromagnetic radiation is not used for excitation of electrons. Further, there is also no phenomenon of electrons moving in between the ground state and excited state. The principle of mass spectrometry is […]

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NMR Spectroscopy Principle, Instrument and Applications

NMR instrument

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one that studies the spin changes at the nuclear level. This spin change occurs when a radio frequency energy is absorbed by the nucleus in the presence of a magnetic field. Principle of NMR spectroscopy In an atom with an odd mass number, the proton (nucleus) spins on its own […]

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Limit Test for Iron with Principle and Procedure

Limit test for iron

Limit test for iron is a semi-quantitative test used to check the iron impurities in an official sample. Principle: This test is based on the reaction of thioglycolic acid with iron in the given sample. A purple colored ferrous thioglycolate salt is formed. The color intensity is compared with that of a standard substance containing […]

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Applications of Gas Chromatography | 5 Major Uses

applications of gas chromatography

Gas chromatography is one of the widely used analytical tools. The applications of gas chromatography include Qualitative analysis Testing the purity of compounds To trace impurities Quantitative analysis Determination of a mixture of drugs Isolation and identification of metabolites Identification of compound mixtures. Qualitative analysis: Here the compounds in a given sample are identified. Qualitative […]

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Fluorimetry | Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Fluorescence spectroscopy

Fluorimetry is a type of spectroscopy which measures the emitted radiation from a substance. This radiation is one which is emitted by the substance when the electrons transit from excited state to ground state. The principle of fluorescence spectroscopy: In UV-Visible spectroscopy, the excitation wavelength is measured. But, here the emission wavelength is measured. When […]

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Potentiometric titration | Experimental Method and Applications

potentiometric titration

Potentiometric titration is a method of chemical analysis. This technqiue relies on the measurement of electromotive force (EMF) of a solution using a set of indicator and reference electrodes. The potential or EMF of a solution depends on the nature and concentration of the ions of the test substance. The EMF or potential is measured […]

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Types of HPLC | Their Principle and Application

types of hplc

High performance liquid chromatography finds widespread application in analytical chemistry and biology. There are different types of HPLC like 1. Based on modes of chromatography : a) Normal phase mode b) Reverse phase mode 2. Based on principle of separation :       c) Adsorption chromatography d) Ion exchange chromatography e) Ion pair chromatography f) Size exclusion […]

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Test for proteins | Chemical Methods of Identification in Labs

Test for proteins

Proteins are the essential biomolecules present in the living organisms. They give structural support and rigidity to the organisms. There are many proteins like albumin, globulin, casein, gelatin, peptone etc. The tests for proteins include Coagulation test Biuret test Neumann’s test Half saturation test Aldehyde test Millon’s test Ninhydrin test Xanthohydrin test Arginine test Isoelectric […]

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Normal Phase Chromatography| Principle and Applications

Normal phase chromatography is one where in the stationary phase is polar in nature and the mobile phase is non-polar in nature. Chromatography is a separation process which employs two phases i.e. stationary phase and a mobile phase. The stationary phase is water soluble and polar in nature. While the mobile phase is water insoluble […]

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