Cells are the fundamental units of life, and hence all the living organisms are made of cells.
These cells are of different types based on their structure, function, and role in the body physiology.
Though all the cells have their internal physiology, there are many differences among them.
The differences are based on evolution periods, adaptability and requirements for living.
Here we discuss broadly about different cells in living beings.
You can also read types of cells in the human body alone.
Types of cells
1. Prokaryotic cells:
2. Eukaryotic cells
3. Cancer cells
4. Stem cells
5. Animal cells
6. Plant cells
These cells are present only in few microorganisms like the bacteria and few algae. They are considered as a primitive type of cells. The name prokaryotic is due to the absence of well-defined nucleus in them. The nuclear material like the DNA and other essentials are present in the cytoplasm itself along with other regular cell organelles. The process of transcription and translation co-occur as there is no need for mRNA to travel out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm. They have 70S ribosomes which have two subunits as 30S and 50S sub-unit.
These cells are highly evolved cells and are considered to be advanced forms than prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a distinct nucleus within them. The nucleus hosts DNA, nucleolous and other essentials within. The process of transcription occurs inside the nucleus. The mRNA formed inside the nucleus due to transcription comes out into cytoplasm and involves in translation process. These cells have 80S ribosomes which have two sub units as 40S and 60S.
Almost all the plants and animals have eukarytoic cells. See differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
These cells are normal animal cells but with disturbed physiology and structure. These cells grow faster than others and also bigger in size. Further they do not have death unlike normal cells.
So they tend to keep on growing. Normal cells enhance the life of the organism while these cells lead to death of the organism.
These are the cells which are formed in animals especially and have the capacity to differentiate into any required body cell.
These cells can be obtained from the bone marrow in adults and from the umbilical cord in the children. The ability of these cells to convert into other cells is called as totipotency.
These cells are eukaryotic cells and are present in animals. They are of different types and vary from animal to animal. These cells are quite different from plant cells in terms of food procurement, waste treatment, metabolism etc. These cells work in mutual harmony and they form many different tissues and organs to carry out various function within the body. They are susceptible to contract diseases and also repair themselves. They divide by process like mitosis and meiosis.
These cells are present within the plants. They are of few types and unlike animal cells they are very few different varieties. They lose their internal function gradually over age and are either shed of the plant or located within the plant to give structural strength to plant. With growth in age, the cells are deposited by various phytochemicals like chitin, lignin which make them hard and thick.