Biological science is a major branch of science studied around the world.
It studies the characters of living beings in detail. It helps us understand the process of life, like birth, growth, disease, etc.
Further, it helps us explore the applications of biology in different aspects of human life.
Those who wish to study biology can have various options for study and opt for a bright career.
Most of these courses are ever demanding. Hence, we will see the branches of biology in terms of courses available for study.
Branches of Biological Science
Broadly biology can be divided into few branches like
- Molecular biology
- Agricultural Sciences
- Marine biology
- Food science
- Evolutionary biology
Zoology: This is one of the common branches of biology studied in most universities. It deals with the anatomy, physiology, classification and other life aspects of living animals.
Botany: It is the branch of biology similar to zoology with the only change that deals with plants in great detail. It describes the taxonomical classification of plants, bacteria, their physiology, growth, reproduction and other life aspects.
Biochemistry: It is an important branch of biology, and it deals with internal chemistry and its role in physiology, growth, reproduction and other ways of life. It looks like chemistry, but it varies based on its focus on living organisms, both plants and animals. For more details, read what is biochemistry.
Microbiology: This is a science, as the name indicates, that deals with microscopic aspects of life. Microbiology describes microorganisms like bacteria, protozoa, viruses, fungi, algae, etc. It also describes their role in human life, their applications to human life. Further, it also describes methods to keep the microbes at bay by the process of sterilization.
Biotechnology: This is a science that relies on principles of biochemistry, microbiology, and other sciences to explore better human applications. In simple terms, it is the transfer of desired characters from one animal into another organism to produce in large quantities. For example, insulin is required by a large population of humans to treat diabetes. This insulin is made from genetically modified bacteria by fermentation.
Molecular biology: This is the study of macromolecules like nucleic acids, proteins their composition and interactions essential for cell functions.
Genetic engineering. This is a subject wherein biological products are obtained by the use of rDNA technology.
Forestry: This is a branch which deals with forests in detail like protecting, conserving, managing at the time of the fire, repairing, etc. This is one of the branches with an interesting career as forest officers to look after forests.
Medicine: This branch of biology is purely concerned with the health of human beings. It is a vast subject. One can learn human anatomy, pathology (disease mechanism), Drugs, pharmacology, prevention of diseases, surgery, etc. It also deals with individual organ-related diseases and has specializations like gynecology, proctology, neurology, pediatrics, pulmonary, etc.
Pharmacy: Similar to medicine, it has branches like anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, etc. However, it lacks surgery. But it has more details on the chemistry of the drug, how the drug is synthesized, toxic effects, etc.
Nursing: This has subjects like human anatomy, physiology, pathology, etc. But it is more concerned with well being of the patient.
Dentistry: A science concerned with dental health in humans.
Veterinary: A science related to the health and well-being of animals. It is concerned with animal anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, etc.
Agricultural sciences: As the name indicates, this is a major subject and utterly devoted to agriculture. It covers many aspects of agriculture, including manures, pest control, hybridization, crop yield, etc. It is one of the best biological science subjects to perceive a career.
Marine biology: This is the study of life in the oceans and seas. Almost 70% of the landmass is covered by oceans and they have a huge variety of living organisms in them. The subject deals with marine habitats, the food cycle, marine ecology, etc.
Astrobiology: This is the study of life in space and other planets other than the earth. It tries to study extraterrestrial life.
Food Science: This subject deals with food and nutrition. The aspects of the physical, chemical composition of food, processing, packing, storage are studied.
Horticulture: It deals with the art of growing plants for the sustainable production of food and ornamental plants.
Evolutionary biology: This is the study of the origin of life, natural selection, the evolution of species and diversification of life.