Branches of Biological Science

Biological science is a major branch of science studied around the world.

It studies the characters of living beings in detail. It helps us understand the process of life, like birth, growth, disease, etc.

Further, it helps us explore the applications of biology in different aspects of human life.

Those who wish to study biology can have various options for study and opt for a bright career.

Most of these courses are ever demanding. Hence, we will see the branches of biology in terms of courses available for study.

Branches of Biology

Broadly biology can be divided into a few branches like

  1. Zoology
  2. Botany
  3. Biochemistry
  4. Microbiology
  5. Biotechnology
  6. Molecular biology
  7. Genetic engineering
  8. Forestry
  9. Medicine
  10. Pharmacy
  11. Nursing
  12. Dentistry
  13. Veterinary
  14. Agricultural Sciences
  15. Marine biology
  16. Astrobiology
  17. Toxicology
  18. Pathophysiology
  19. Food science
  20. Horticulture
  21. sericulture
  22. Ecology
  23. Evolutionary biology
  24. Taxonomy


This is one of the common branches of biology studied in most universities.

Branches of Biological Science
Butterfly feeding nectar on a flower

It deals with the anatomy, physiology, classification, and other life aspects of living animals.

It is a branch of biology similar to zoology with the only change that deals with plants in great detail.


It describes the taxonomical classification of plants, bacteria, algae, and fungi.

It studies their physiology, growth, reproduction, breeding, and other life aspects.


It is an important branch of biology, and it deals with internal chemistry and its role in physiology, growth, reproduction, and other ways of life.

It looks like chemistry, but it varies based on its focus on living organisms, both plants, and animals.

For more details, read what biochemistry is.


As the name indicates, this is a science dealing with microscopic aspects of life.

Microbiology describes microorganisms like bacteria, protozoa, viruses, fungi, algae, etc.

It also describes their role in human life and their applications to human life.

Further, it also describes methods to keep the microbes at bay by the process of sterilization.


This is a science that relies on principles of biochemistry, microbiology, and other sciences to explore better human applications.

In simple terms, it is the transfer of desired characters from one animal into another organism to produce in large quantities.

For example, insulin is required by a large population of humans to treat diabetes. This insulin is made from genetically modified bacteria by fermentation.

Molecular biology

This is the study of macromolecules like nucleic acids and proteins their composition and interactions are essential for cell functions.

Genetic engineering

This is a subject wherein the biology of animals and plants is varied by alteration of their genetic makeup.


This is a branch that deals with forests in detail like protecting, conserving, managing at the time of the fire, repairing, etc. This is one of the branches with an interesting career as forest officers to look after forests.


This branch of biology is purely concerned with the health of human beings. It is a vast subject.

One can learn human anatomy, pathology (disease mechanism), Drugs, pharmacology, prevention of diseases, surgery, etc.

It also deals with individual organ-related diseases and has specializations like gynecology, proctology, neurology, pediatrics, pulmonary, etc.


Similar to medicine, it has branches like anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, etc.

However, it lacks surgery. But it has more details on the chemistry of the drug, how the drug is synthesized, toxic effects, etc.


This has subjects like human anatomy, physiology, pathology, etc.

But it is more concerned with well being of the patient.


A science concerned with dental health in humans.


Science related to the health and well-being of animals.

It is concerned with animal anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, etc.

Agricultural sciences

As the name indicates, this is a major subject and utterly devoted to agriculture.

It covers many aspects of agriculture, including manures, pest control, hybridization, crop yield, etc.

It is one of the best biological science subjects to perceive a career.

Marine biology

This is the study of life in the oceans and seas.

Almost 70% of the landmass is covered by oceans, and they have a huge variety of living organisms in them.

The subject deals with marine habitats, the food cycle, marine ecology, etc.


This is the study of life in space and other planets other than the earth.

It tries to study extraterrestrial life.


This is a study of toxins and their effects on the body.

It deals with the source of toxins, their property, mechanism, dose, antidotes, and analysis.


This is a subject that deals with the causes, mechanisms, symptoms, and changes in the body due to disease and disorder.

It helps in discovering options to treat diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Food Science

This subject deals with food and nutrition.

The aspects of food’s physical and chemical composition, processing, packing, and storage are studied.


It deals with the art of growing plants for the sustainable production of food and ornamental plants.


Sericulture deals with the growth of silkworms and the production of silk from their larval cocoons.


This deals with the study of a set of organisms in an environment and their interaction with it.

Evolutionary biology

This is the study of the origin of life, natural selection, the evolution of species, and the diversification of life.


It aims to name, classify and also describe a common set of features among a group of animals.

This way, it helps categorize animals based on their specific characters into a group.

For example, mammals are the animals that give birth the babies and also nourish them with milk to a certain age.

Amphibians are animals that live on both land and water.

Leave a comment

Leave a Comment