Biological science is one of the important subjects of science studied as a part of education.
It deals with the living beings in detail. It helps us understand the process of life, like birth, growth, disease, etc.
Further, it helps us study the applications of biology in different aspects of human life.
Those who wish to study biology can have various options for study and opt for a bright career.
Most of these courses are ever demanding. Hence, we will see the branches of biology in terms of courses available for study.
Branches of Biological Science
Broadly biology can be divided into few branches like
- Agricultural Sciences
- Marine biology
- Food science
Zoology: This is one of the common branches of biology studied in most universities. It deals with the anatomy, physiology, classification and other life aspects of living animals.
Botany: It is the branch of biology similar to zoology with the only change that it deals with plants in great detail. It describes the taxonomical classification of plants, bacteria, their physiology, growth, reproduction and other life aspects.
Biochemistry: It is an important branch of biology, and its deal with internal chemistry and its role in physiology, growth, reproduction and other ways of life. It looks like chemistry, but it varies based on its focus on living organisms both plants and animals. For more details, read what is biochemistry.
Microbiology: This is a science as the name indicates that deals with microscopic aspects of life. Microbiology describes the microorganisms like bacteria, protozoa, virus, fungi, algae etc. It also describes their role in human life, their applications to human life. Further, it also describes methods to keep the microbes at bay by the process of sterilization.
Biotechnology: This is a science which relies on principles of biochemistry, microbiology and other sciences to explore better human applications. In simple terms it is transfer of desired characters from one animal into another organism to produce in large quantities. For example, insulin is required by large population of humans to treat diabetes. This insulin is made from genetically modified bacteria by fermentation.
Genetic engineering. This is a subject where in a desired gene is manipulated or transferred into another organism for better products. See the undergraduate degree in genetics.
Forestry: This is a branch which deals with forests in detail like protecting, conserving, managing at time of the fire, repairing, etc. This is one of the branches with an interesting career as forest officers to look after forests.
Medicine: This branch of biology is purely concerned with the health of human beings. It is a vast subject. One can learn the human anatomy, pathology (disease mechanism), Drugs, pharmacology, prevention of diseases, surgery, etc. It also deals with individual organ related diseases and has specializations like gynecology, proctology, neurology, pediatrics, pulmonary, etc.
Pharmacy: Similar to medicine, it has branches like anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, etc. However, it lack surgery. But it has more details on the chemistry of drug, how the drug is synthesized, toxic effects etc.
Nursing: This has subjects like human anatomy, physiology, pathology, etc. But it is more concerned with well being of the patient.
Dentistry: A science concerned with only about dental health in humans.
Veterinary: A science related to health and well being of animals. It is concerned with animal anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, etc.
Agricultural sciences: As the name indicates, this is a major subject and utterly devoted to agriculture. It covers many aspects of agriculture including manures, pest control, hybridization, crop yield, etc. It is one of the best biological science subject to perceive a career.
Marine biology: This is the study of life in the oceans and seas. Almost 70% of land mass is covered by oceans and they have a huge variety of living organisms in it. The subject deals with marine habitats, the food cycle, marine ecology, etc.
Astrobiology: This is the study of life in the space. It tries to study extra terrestrial life.
Food science: This subject deals with food and nutrition. The aspects of physical, chemical composition of food, processing, packing, storage are studied.
Horticulture: It deals with the growing of plants for gardening.