20 Types of Scientists | A Guide on Their Study and Contribution to Society

Scientists are the cause of human development and progress in technology in the current lifestyle.

There are various types of scientists who work in different sectors to improve human life.

Their efforts contribute to better health, quality products, safety measures, ease of living, and enhancement in economy and employment.

The options like industrialization, internet, social media, connectivity which humans enjoy now are products of the collective efforts of scientists working in tandem in different sectors.

20 Different types of scientists and what they study

1. Space scientist

He is the one whose work involves exploring the solar system, space, galaxies, the movement of planets.
types of scientists
They are responsible for our knowledge about the sun, Mars, Saturn, and other planets. They are also involved in exploring the possibility of life on other planets. other space technology exploration, defense, etc. Their contribution to the current lifestyle includes mobile networks, television, and other communication through the deployment of various satellites in space.

Some of them work from even space by staying in space centers. They are also called as astronauts.

2. Geoscientist

Unlike the above type of scientist, geoscientists’ work involves exploring the earth and its internal environment. They study the composition, structure, and processes of the earth by being indoors and outdoors.

They contribute to the discovery of mines, petroleum deposits, minerals, and other aspects of the earth.


These scientists study the origin and movement of seismic waves of the earth. They can also detect earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, etc.


He is the one with knowledge on water like its distribution, movement, rainfall, water cycle, water resources on the earth.

Even they study the chemical nature of water, its interactions with other living beings, methods of storage etc.

3. Meteorologist

National hurricane center: Florida

They are also similar to space scientists. But their focus is on weather, climate, and environment. They give us a weather report on a daily basis, forecast rainfalls, cyclones, summer temperatures, global warming, etc.

4. Medical scientist

These scientists work to improve human health. They study the cause of disease, their mechanism, options for treatment. They also explore the human body in complete detail to prevent, diagnose, and treat disorders.
When there are new infections like recent swine flu, ebola virus, etc, they study the viral structure in detail to check for possible vaccines.

They try to design drugs, vaccines, antidotes, diagnostic kits, nutrition supplements, and other essential health requirements.

Some of the other types of medical scientists are pathologists, pharmacologists, etc.


He is also a type of medical scientist involved in the discovery of new drugs and molecules for diseases with no treatment. He is mostly concerned with how the drug once administered behaves in the body. How it produces the therapeutic effects, the metabolism, toxicity, and side-effects of the drugs.

5. Social scientists

This is a group of similar scientists who can be defined based on their area of social research like

a) Anthropologist

Is one who studies aspects of human society of the past and present.

b) Archaeologists

These are a group of scientists who try to explain past human activity by exploring past remains.

c) Geographers

 As the name indicates, they study the land, habitat, and human life in the region. They also help in making maps.

d) Historians

These scientists try to explain history from the available collection of records or events.

6. Physicist

He is a scientist with knowledge and curiosity in the field of physics. The knowledge involves interactions of matter and energy at all time scales in the universe.
These scientists based on observation postulate laws or principle which help understand the universe principles like gravitation, motion, time, etc. Examples of great scientists in this area include Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein.

Nuclear physicists

These scientists study, the structure, characters of atomic nuclei, and interactions of its components. The work of these scientists helps in the development of nuclear energy, X-rays technique, and other radiation-related methods.

7. Chemical scientist

The science of chemistry is so vast. The work involves the discovery of the chemical structure of any compound either from nature or obtained by synthesis. Also, they formulate methods to identify a substance, determine the chemical and physical properties. Further, they also identify their uses and toxic properties.   There are a number of scientists who are involved in research of chemistry in a different area of study like

a) Organic chemists

They are concerned with the study of pure organic compounds is so wide and most compounds including drugs, poisons, disinfectants are organic in nature. They try to study the structure, synthesis method, reactions of these compounds.

b) Biochemist

This researcher studied the chemistry of animals and plants. It is study of chemistry in the biological system. These scientists study how the living organism to prepare food, digest, metabolize, and excrete it. They also study processes like fermentation, transcription, translation, etc. They are ones involved in the human genome project.

c) Medicinal chemistry

The scientists working in this area study the structure of available drug molecules and try to explore the structure by a further modification to find more new molecules. They also try to minimize the toxicity of existing medicine by suitable modifications in the parent molecule. See chemistry in medicine for more.

d) Inorganic chemist

This area involves the study of noncarbon compounds or inorganic compounds.

These chemical compounds are used in daily life like table salt, baking soda, talc, etc. There are many inorganic compounds and they are explored for their chemical, physical properties. Further, their uses and harmful effects are sorted out.

e) Analytical chemistry etc. This is chemistry which tries to analyze substances. Scientists involved try to find new ways to determine a substance with more accuracy, at a shorter time in an inexpensive way.

8. Astronomers

They are the scientists who study celestial objects like planets, stars, and their details of how they are formed, behave, etc. They help discover new stars, comets by use of telescopes.

9. Biologists

These scientists study living beings and their characters in all the forms. They are again of different types like

a. Zoologists

These are scientists who study animals. They focus on animals’ origin structure, living habitats, genetics, reproduction, etc. They also try to predict and explain the evolution of animals.

b. Botanist

Is one who explores the knowledge about plants. They try to understand the evolution of plants, their physiology, growth, age, etc. Further, they explore the distribution of plant species and types in the nation and the world. They also define methods to identify the plants, study the external and internal structure of plants. Even the uses of plant constituents are explored. Hence, we use plants for medicine, dye, textile, and other uses due to plant studies.

c. Microbiologist

This person studies microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, algae, etc. He is also concerned with methods like sterilization (destruction of microbes), disinfection, body immunity, vaccination etc.

d) Bacteriologist

They are specialized in the knowledge of bacteria. This includes their classification, distribution, food habits, benefits to man etc.

e) Virologist

A scientist with immense knowledge of the viruses, their emergence, growth, distribution, pathogenicity etc.

d. Bio-technologist

He studies the genetic and other traits of living beings and tries to develop new biological entities for the benefit of mankind.

e) Ornithologist

The scientists involved in the study of birds. The ornithologists’ study, the behaviors, habits, habitats, migration, and other features of birds.

f) Entomologist

He studies and works on insects. He tries to classify the insects, studies their anatomy, physiology, food habits, reproduction, and life-cycle.

g) Ichthyologist

He is the one who is involved in the study of fishes. This includes their anatomy, characters, habits, habitats, etc.

10. Agriculturist

The scientist concerned with methods and improvement of agriculture. They study crop varieties, soil characters, crop disease, etc. Their goal is to enhance crop yield, prevent diseases, survive drought and other conditions by crops.

11. Environmental scientist:

These are scientists we regularly hear them talking about global warming, melting of glaciers in Antarctica, and the possibility of sea-level rise risking coastal cities.

They study the reasons of pollution, global warming, and methods to prevent or overcome these problems.

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