20 Types of Scientists | A Guide on Their Study and Contribution to Society

Scientists are the cause of human development and progress in technology in the current lifestyle.

There are various types of scientists who work in different sectors to improve the human life.

Their efforts contribute to better health, quality products, safety measures, ease of living and enhancement in economy and employment.

The options like industrialization, internet, social media, connectivity which human enjoy now are products of collective efforts of scientists working in tandem in different sectors.

20 Different types of scientists and what they study

1. Space scientist: He is the one whose work involves exploring the solar system, space, galaxies, the movement of planets.
types of scientists
They are responsible for our knowledge about sun, mars, Saturn and other planets. They are also involved in exploring the possibility of life on other planets. other  space technology exploration, defense etc. Their contribution to current lifestyle includes mobile network, television and other communication through deployment of various satellites in space.

Some of them work from even space by staying in space centers. They are also called as astronauts.

2. Geo scientist: Unlike the above type of scientist, geo scientists work involves exploring the earth and its internal environment. They study the composition, structure and processes of earth by being indoors and outdoors.

They contribute to discovery of mines, petroleum deposits, mineral and other aspects of earth. They can also detect earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis etc.

3. Meteorologist:

National hurricane center: Florida

They are also similar to space scientists. But their focus is on weather, climate and environment. They give us weather report on daily basis, forecast rainfalls, cyclones, summer temperatures, global warming etc.

4. Medical scientist: These scientists work to improve human health. They study the cause of disease, their mechanism, options for treatment. They also explore human body in complete detail to prevent, diagnose and treat disorders.
When there are new infections like recent swine flu, ebola virus etc, they study the viral structure in detail to check for possible vaccines.

They try to design drugs, vaccines, antidotes, diagnostic kits, nutrition supplements and other essential health requirements.

5. Social scientists: This is a group of similar scientists who can be defined based on their area of social research like

a) Anthropologist: Is one who studies aspects of human society of the past and present.
b) Archaeologists: These are group of scientist who try to explain the past human activity by exploring past remains.
c) Geographers: As the name indicates, they study the land, habitat and human life in the region. They also help in making maps.
d) Historians: These scientists try to explain history from available collection of records or events.

6. Physicist: He is a scientist with knowledge and curiosity in the field of physics. The knowledge involves interactions of matter and energy at all time scales in the universe.
These scientists based on observation postulate laws or principle which help understand the universe principles like gravitation, motion, time etc. Examples of great scientists in this area include Isaac newton, Albert Einstein.

7. Chemical scientist: The science of chemistry is so vast. The work involves discovery of the chemical structure of any compound either from nature or obtained by synthesis. Also, they formulate methods to identify a substance, determine the chemical and physical properties. Further, they also identify their uses and toxic properties.   There are number of scientists who are involved in research of chemistry in different area of study like

a) Organic chemistry: The are concerned with pure organic compounds is so wide and most compound including drugs, poisons, disinfectants are organic in nature. They try to study the structure, synthesis method, reactions of these compounds.

b) Biochemistry: This is study of chemistry in the biological system. These scientists study how the living organism prepare food, digest, metabolize and excrete it. They also study about processes like fermentation, transcription, translation etc. They are ones involved in human genome project.

c) Medicinal chemistry: The scientists working in this area study the structure of available drug molecules and try to explore the structure by further modification to find more new molecules. They also try to minimize toxicity of existing medicine by suitable modifications in the parent molecule. See chemistry in medicine for more.

d) Inorganic chemistry: This area involves non carbon compounds. These chemical compounds are used in daily life like the table salt, baking soda, talc etc. There are many inorganic compounds and they are explored for their chemical, physical properties. Further, their uses and harmful effects are sorted out.

e) Analytical chemistry etc. This is chemistry which tries to analyze substances. Scientists involved try to find new ways to determine a substance with more accuracy, at a shorter time in an inexpensive way.

8. Astronomers: They are the scientists who study about celestial objects like planets, stars and their details of how they are formed, behave etc. They help discover new stars, comets by use of telescopes.

9. Zoologists: These are scientists who study about the animals. They focus on animals origin structure, living habitats, genetics, reproduction etc. They also try to predict and explain the evolution of animals.

10. Botanist: Is one who explores the knowledge about plants. They try to understand the evolution of plants, their physiology, growth, age etc. Further, they explore the distribution of plant species and types in nation and the world. They also define methods to identify the plants, study the external and internal structure of plants. Even the uses of plant constituents are explored. Hence, we use plants for medicine, dye, textile and other uses due to plant studies.

11. Agriculturist: The scientist concerned with methods and improvement of agriculture. They study crop varieties, soil characters, crop disease etc. Their goal is to enhance crop yield, prevent diseases, survive drought and other conditions by crops.

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