Author Archives: Ranga.nr

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Amazing Ways to Learn through Crossword Puzzles

Crossword Puzzles

Crossword puzzles play a vital role in the development of children. As they boost mental development and their creativity. They are significant for improving vocabulary and enable one to develop fine skills in the use of certain terms and words. The first known published crossword puzzle was created by Arthur Wynne, a journalist from Liverpool, […]

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Differences Between Chromosomes and Chromatids

Differences Between Chromosomes and Chromatids

Chromosomes are genetic material present in the cell nucleus. Chromatids are the parts of the chromosome present as two arms. Sl. No Characteristics Chromosomes Chromatids 1 Basic They are nuclear components that play a vital role in heredity, mutation, variation, and evolutionary development of the species These are part of chromosomes. During mitosis, the chromosomes […]

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Cilia vs Flagella | 15 Prominent Differences

cilia vs flagella

Cilia and Flagella are cell organelles which protrude out of cytoplasm and are meant for external functions of cells. Cilia are small hair like structures coming out of cytoplasm of many animals and cells. Flagella are long thread like or whip like structures protruding out of cytoplasm through cell wall. Cilia and Flagella are cell […]

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Cnidaria Characteristics | Points based on Anatomy and Physiology

Cnidaria Characteristics

Cnidaria is a class of animals which are found in marine and aquatic environments. They come under coelenterate phylum. Cnidaria Characteristics The cnidarians are defined as the “diploblastic metazoa with tissue grade organization. They are referred to as the simplest metazoan. The body wall is made up of two layers viz, ectoderm, and endoderm. Hence, […]

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Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms | 20 Clear Differences in Points


Gymnosperms are considered as primitive plants while the angiosperms are advanced. There are few characteristic differences between them. Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms Sl.No Charecter Gymnosperms Angiosperms 1 Basic feature These are non-flowering plants which produce seeds These are flowering plants which produce seeds. 2 Seed feature The seeds are naked and found in scales, leaves, or […]

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Anatomy of the Root of both Dicot and Monocot Plants


The roots are a very important organ in plants. They develop from radicle and help in absorption of water and minerals from the soil that are required for the plant life. The roots fix the plant to the ground and provide support to the part of the plant above-ground. In few plants like rhizomes, roots […]

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RNA Translation | The 3 Step Process of Protein synthesis

rna transcription

The translation is a process by which ribosomes present in the cytoplasm (on  endoplasmic reticulum) synthesize the proteins from an mRNA. The RNA Translation occurs by 3 steps like 1.Initiation 2. Elongation 3. Termination. A protein is a polypeptide that has a sequence of the amino acids coded by the mRNA. There are different types […]

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DNA Transcription |3 Step Process in mRNA formation

dna transcription

Transcription means a written version of something. So, a DNA transcription means formation of a copy of DNA strand. “The process by which the DNA sequence is read and the complementary RNA molecule is formed is called transcription.” Thus the DNA codes for RNA strand which will then code for the protein. Before transcription can […]

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