Water pollution is the contamination of water such that it is unfit for use by humans and dangerous for the animals to live in. Water contamination affects groundwater, lakes, rivers, and oceans too.
Important Causes Of Water Pollution
Water makes an approximate of 71% of the total mass of earth.
Of this only 3.5% is fresh water which is suitable for human use. The remaining portion in the oceans is unfit for man.
So we humans and all the living beings on earth’s surface should rely only on this 3.5% of water.
But due to the reckless behavior of man this sparse resource of water is also getting polluted.
This pollution makes the water unfit to drink and also harmful for uses in other daily needs.
On the other hand, our body comprises up to 80% of water. Without water, there can be no physiological process in the body. Hence, we need to drink water for survival.
Since this water directly enters the body, it decides the quality of health.
Medical experts are of the opinion that most of the health issues can be solved by providing fresh and pure drinking water.
So, the drinking water we consume daily should be clean, free from pollution and other contaminants.
Water pollution largely occurs due to sewage flow into rivers, dumps into the sea, and also contamination of land and water due to toxic chemicals. But of all of them, it seems the leading cause of water pollution is sewage efflux into rivers.
Rivers are the means by which most of the water is supplied for drinking in all parts of the world. Other sources like wells, bores, ponds, lakes, etc. come in second place and less reliable.
The river water is used for domestic purposes, agriculture, industrial usage.
But interestingly this river water is the prime source of water pollution.
Due to the flux of industrial waste, the rise in automobiles oil usage, and growth in population, the rivers are subjected to a great deal of pollution.
- Dumping into water
Pollution of river waters can lead to hazardous risks to humans, animals and also plants.
Since rivers flow through multiple countries or states, polluting the river water in one place can affect the people in the next places of flow.
Also, river pollution leads to the accumulation of large amounts of waste in the Seas and oceans. This dramatically endangers the life of marine animals.
Main Causes of river pollution include:
1. Human dumping
Due to human dumping of waste and other harmful substances into river water directly. Since most of the towns and cities are beside rivers, human waste is
2. Industrial waste release
Most industries release their processing waste into the rivers. This is an easy method for them to get rid of waste. But by the release of industrial sewage into river water there is severe pollution to the water.
3. Land Contamination
Contamination during rains due to the flow of rainwater from contaminated land into rivers. In case of floods where water from the river flows over surrounding lands. This flow collects all the possible waste and dumps it into the river.
4. Due to air pollution
Air pollution is formed by the disposal of harmful gases into the air. This pollution from air in-turn returns to the ground through rains and contaminate groundwater and river waters. This indicates that the pollution we create finally reaches us in one or another way.
5. Farm pollution
Farming is the industry which relies heavily on river water. The river water is used for irrigation. But pesticides and other toxic chemicals are used by farmers to control diseases. These toxins reach the river canals which supply water the cities and towns ahead.
6. Improper Drainage system
Drainage system pollution, this is the form of water pollution where sewage and regular public water supply mix up. This is seen primarily in cities where water is pumped from distant out places. This occurs when there is leakage of sewage water and mixing with that of pure water supplied by municipal water pipes.
This happens when both sewage draining pipes and pure water supply pipes are passing close to each other and there are some leaks in the pipes.
In the course of travel in pipelines, there are chances of any drainage system flowing nearby. This provides a chance of mixing both of the water leading to sewage water pollution. This is one of the prime reasons for infectious diseases caused due to water.
- Industrial toxic waste being released into rivers
7. Groundwater contamination
Water on the land is absorbed by the soil. Along with water any chemicals or toxins on the land are also absorbed. This happens in places of heavy land pollution. These harmful substances on the land percolate into deep ground layers causing pollution. Thus there are many cases where groundwater from bore-well was found to be harmful.
8. Plastic waste
Plastic is another threat adding to marine water pollution. Plastic pollution occurs due to the accumulation of plastic waste for long in the seas beds as it is not decomposed fast. It is thought to be responsible for the destruction of the aquatic environment.
9. Due to fisheries
Fisheries are a part of agriculture but mainly depend on rivers. Many chemicals and drugs are used to enhance fish growth. But since these are collected with rivers. All the waste is flowed out into rivers.
10. Due to leakage of petroleum and other oils from vehicles etc on to the local roads. Even from mechanic sheds, this is released. These petroleum wastes are mixed with the ground and other water sources.
River Water pollution prevention:
1) Avoidance of dumping of the human waste directly into the river water. This has to be taken as an individual responsibility by all.
2) Proper treatment of waste by industries before releasing into rivers. The waste must be detoxified and rendered harmless. The enactment of strict rules and laws can help prevent this pollution.
3) Purification of water before using for cooking, drinking, and other domestic purposes.
4) Maintenance of proper river banks and repair them when damaged.
Water is a part of our environment. If it is contaminated the whole of life on earth will be in trouble. Since humans are the sole reason for this water pollution, it is we who should care to reduce this pollution.
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