10 Important Causes of Water Pollution and their Prevention

Water pollution is the contamination of water so that it is unfit for consumption and even dangerous for animals.  The leading causes Of Water Pollution include

  1. Human waste dumping
  2. Industrial waste release
  3. Land Contamination
  4. Air pollution
  5. Agriculture pollution
  6. Improper Drainage system
  7. Groundwater contamination
  8. Plastic waste
  9. Due to fisheries
  10. Automobile usage.

Water makes up approximately 71% of the total mass of the Earth.

Of this, only 3.5% is freshwater, suitable for human use. The remaining portion present in the oceans is unfit for drinking and farming.

So we humans and all the living beings on Earth’s surface should rely only on this 3.5% of water.

But due to the reckless behavior of man, this sparse resource of water is also getting polluted.

1. Human dumping

The river water is filled with plastic garbage.

Reckless human dumping of waste and other harmful substances into river water directly causes pollution.

Since most of the towns and cities lie near rivers, human waste is directly expelled into them.

Pollution of river waters can lead to hazardous risks to humans, animals, and plants.

Since rivers flow through multiple countries or states, polluting the river water in one place can affect the people in the next places of flow.

From rivers, large amounts of waste are dumped into the Seas and oceans. This dramatically endangers the lives of marine animals.

Main Causes of river pollution include:

2. Industrial waste release

Most industries release their waste into the rivers in countries with weak laws.

This is an easy method for them to get rid of waste.

But this waster has to be treated to remove toxicity before release into rivers.

3. Land Contamination

The land gets contaminated by harmful chemicals from automobiles, chemical farming, and industrial disposal.

When the rainwater from this land moves, it carries this toxic waste, which is dumped into rivers and finally into oceans.

4. Due to air pollution

Air pollution is formed by the disposal of harmful gases into the air.

This pollution from the air, in turn, returns to the ground through rains and contaminates groundwater and river waters.

This indicates that the pollution we create finally reaches us in one way or another.

5. Farm Pollution

Farming is an industry that relies heavily on water for irrigation.

However, conventional farming uses chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and other toxins for enhanced yield or disease control.

These toxins reach the groundwater or even rivers through canals. Sometimes, these rivers supply water to the cities and towns ahead.

6. Improper Drainage system

Drainage pollution occurs when sewage and regular public water supply mix up.

This is seen primarily in cities where water is pumped from distant outplaces and piping is placed beside sewage drains.

When there is a leakage of sewage water, it mixes with that of pure water supplied by public services.

This happens when both sewage draining pipes and pure water supply pipes are passing close to each other, and there are some leaks in the pipes.

This is one of the prime reasons for infectious diseases caused by water in a community.

7. Groundwater contamination

The soil absorbs water on the land. Along with water, any chemicals or toxins on the land are also absorbed. This happens in places of heavy land pollution. These harmful substances on the land percolate into deep ground layers, causing pollution. Thus, there are many cases where groundwater from bore wells was found to be harmful.

8. Plastic waste

Plastic is another threat adding to marine water pollution. Plastic pollution occurs due to the accumulation of plastic waste in the sea beds as it does not decompose fast. It is thought to be responsible for the destruction of the aquatic environment.

9. Due to fisheries

Fisheries are a part of agriculture but mainly depend on rivers.

Many chemicals and drugs are used to enhance fish growth. But since these are connected with rivers. All the waste is flown into rivers.

10. Automobile usage

Vehicles leak petroleum and other oils when going on the roads.

Even from the mechanic garage, this is released. These petroleum wastes contain harmful elements, including heavy metals.

When leaked, they are mixed with the ground and other water sources.

River Water pollution prevention: 

1) Avoid dumping of the human waste directly into the river water.

This has to be every individual’s responsibility.

2) Proper treatment of waste by industries before releasing it into rivers. The waste must be detoxified and rendered harmless. The enactment of strict rules and laws can help prevent this pollution.

3) Purification of water before use for cooking, drinking, and other domestic purposes.

4) Maintenance of proper river banks and repair them when damaged.

Water is a part of our environment. If it is contaminated, the whole of life on Earth will be in trouble. Since humans are the sole reason for this water pollution, it is we who should care to reduce this pollution.


  1. Where is Earth’s Water?
  2. Water Facts – Worldwide Water Supply
  3. Groundwater Contamination
  4. Industrial Agricultural Pollution
  5. When Your Car Leaks Oil on the Street

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