Gymnosperms are considered as primitive plants while the angiosperms are advanced. There are a few characteristic differences between them.
Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms
|1||Basic feature||These are non-flowering plants which produce seeds||These are flowering plants which produce seeds.|
|2||Seed feature||The seeds are naked and found in scales, leaves, or as cones.||The seeds are very well enclosed in the ovary of the plant.|
|3||Leaf scar||The leaves have a scar as the characteristic feature.||No leaf scar is present|
|4||Leaf anatomy||The leaves are usually|
dimorphic. The foliage leaves are green, simple, needle-like, or pinnately compounded while the scaly leaves are usually minute and deciduous.
|The leaves are usually flat|
with having a proper lamina,
petiole and can be simple or
compound in nature.
|5||Life cycle||The leaves are evergreen or|
|The leaves are shed off and die|
|6||Plant form||Gymnosperms are mostly woody plants||Angiosperms have a variety of plants forms as trees, shrubs, and herbs.|
|7||Wood||A soft type of wood.||usually hardwood|
|8||Reproduction||The cones in gymnosperms|
are unisexual in nature
|The flowers in angiosperms|
can be bisexual or unisexual.
|9||Pollination method||Usually wind pollination||The angiosperms also rely on animals for pollination.|
|10||Cotyledons||absent in gymnosperms||Cotyledons present cotyledons and are|
divided further into monocots
|11||No. of a set of|
|a haploid set of chromosomes||Diploid set of chromosomes.|
|12||Xylem vessels and companion|
|Only found in Gnetales||Found in most of the plants except|
some vessel-less genera
|13||ovary, style, and stigma||Absent||Present|
|14||Double fertilization, triple fusion phenomena||Double fertilization and triple fusion phenomena absent||Angiosperm exhibits the|
triple fusion and double fertilization in their life cycle.
|15||Endosperm formation||Endosperm formation in gymnosperms occurs|
|The endosperm formation in|
angiosperms takes place after
fertilization as a result of triple fusion, and hence, it is triploid.
|16||Nuclear divisions||free nuclear divisions|
occur in the zygote of
|free nuclear divisions are|
not seen in the zygote of
|17||Tissue formation||The tissues in|
gymnosperms are less
complex than the
angiosperms. The tissue remains simple.
|The tissue formed in angiosperms is more complex than gymnosperms.|
|18||Distribution||The gymnosperms are|
evergreen trees and shrubs with xerophytic adaptations. They are mostly found in areas that do not have enough water. There are about 1,000 species found.
|The angiosperms have a variety of trees, shrubs, and|
herbs found in seasonal weather. This group is the
most populated group having over 260,000species recorded to date, which holds second
position after insects in terms of their diversity.
|19||Uses to man||They are commonly used for the lumber: pine, spruce, fir.||The angiosperms provide all|
plant-based food as well as livestock feed. Grains, fruits, legumes, nightshades, potatoes, tomatoes, gourds, cabbages
are all angiosperms products.
|20||Examples||Pine, spruce, fir , cycads, pinus, conifers, Ginkgo biloba, zamia, etc.||lilies, orchids , grasses, roses, peas,|
oaks, maples, sunflowers,