Chromosomes are DNA molecules containing part or whole genome of an organism..
They are present in the nucleus of the cell.
Chromosomes mostly have two bands separated by a centromere.
One can differentiate types of chromosomes based on their morphology, function and other differences.
Types of chromosomes
Based on the position of the centromere, chromosomes can be classified by morphological differences as
- Sub-metacentric (L-shaped)
- Metacentric (V-shaped)
All the four types of chromosomes can be found in eukaryotic cells
Teleocentric is like letter “i” shapes and has centromere at the terminal of the chromosome.
These chromosomes can be found extensively in the rodents like mouse roaming in the homes. These are absent in humans.
Acrocentric chromosomes: Here one arm is very short and hard to observe.
These chromosomes are found in humans as chromosome numbers 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22. Even this chromosome is found in domestic horse.
Sub-metacentric chromosomes: These chromosomes have unequal length arms.
By shaped they are called as L-shaped chromosomes.
Metacentric Chromosome: These chromosome have two arms of equal length on either side of the centromere.
Their shaped is as alphabet “V”. These metacentric chromosomes are found in humans as chromosomes 1, 3, 16, 19 and 20.
Halocentric chromosome: In these chromosomes, the entire length of acts as centromere.
The chromosomes are classified into different types based on shape and position of the centromere. According to the position of centromere,
Types of chromosomes based on function
There are two basic types based on function as
- Sex chromosomes.
Autosomes: These are the chromosomes which control the somatic chareters of the organism. There are 44 autosomes in humans.
Sex chromosomes: These chromosomes are two in number. They are involved in determination of the sex of an organism. In humans male has one X and one Y chromosome as XY and in females there are two X chromosomes denoted as XX.
B-chromosomes: These are supernumerary chromosomes and are present additional to regular chromosomes. They tend to reduce the viability. They are present in plants like maize.
Double minutes: These are unstable chromosomes having no centromere and telomeres. They are found in cancer cells and show resistance to anti-cancer drugs.