Eukaryotic cells are those that have a well-defined nucleus.
As per evolution theory, they are considered the advanced forms than the prokaryotic cells.
Almost all animals, humans, and plants have eukaryotic cells.
Unlike prokaryotes, these cells have a distinct nucleus that encloses the genetic material enclosed inside them.
They also have differences in the process of protein synthesis, RNA structures, etc.
See for more details on the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Typical eukaryotic cell examples include
1. Animal cells
All animal cells are eukaryotic in nature. There are billions of cells in animals, and all of them are eukaryotic.
2. Sperm cells
- This is also an animal cell with haploid chromosomes.
- It has an unusual structure that helps it swim in the woman’s uterus after release. This structure helps penetrate and merge into the female ova.
- They are present in all the male animals.
- These cells help in electrical nerve impulse conduction.
- They are pretty long and branched, forming complex networks.
4. Muscle cells
- These cells help in the body’s physical movement.
- They are also large compared to normal cells and have many nuclei.
5. Stem cells
- These cells are germinal and are devoid of any physiology.
- But they can transform into another type of cells (totipotent) based on the body’s requirement.
6. Bone cells
- Unlike other animal cells, these are hard cells with prominent calcification.
- They are made of calcium and phosphorous, which give them rigidity.
7. Cancer cells
- These are abnormal animal cells that have profuse multiplication and growth.
9. Plant cells
- These cells are present in plants and resemble precisely an animal cell with few differences.
See more on the difference between plant and animal cells.
10. Meristematic cells
- These cells are present in plants’ tips or apex regions.
- They multiply and help in the growth of a plant.
- These cells are germ cells that sperm unite to form a zygote.
- They are present in female animals.
12. Fungus cells
- These are multi-cellular organisms that are above bacteria is evolution tress.
- They have multiple cells linked to each other as hyphal strands.
- Each cell of the strand has its own distinct nucleus.
- Protozoa are single-cell organisms having eukaryotic characteristics.
- They perform all their life activities within that single cell.
- They can also migrate from one place to another and even reproduce using that cell.