Fruits is the product of sexual reproduction in plants. Not all plant produce fruits and those which produce are classified as angiosperms.
The fruits act as a house to seeds and help in their dispersal.
They in general have carbohydrates, proteins and fat material which are essential for animals and humans.
So when these animals eat them, they leave off the seed at different place from the mother plant. Thus the seed gets dispersed to produce a new plant at distant location.
Thus fruits help in dispersal of seeds. Also fruits act to store nutrients by the plants. Hence fruits are of nutritional value to humans and animals.
Scientifically fruits are of different types. But all of them have a characteristic embryo, pericarp (fruits part around the seed) .
This pericarp is divided as epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
Types of fruits:
a) Dry fruits: These fruits are in general dry.
b) Moist fruits or wet fruits: These fruits are moist and have fleshy pulp in them.
Based on physical appearance they are also classified as
- Simple fruits.
- Compound fruits
- Aggregate fruits.
Simple fruits: These fruits have just and embryo and pericarp. Ex: Mango.
Compound fruits: This fruits is formed by combination of two or more ovaries.
Aggregate fruits: These fruits are formed due to aggregation of flower. So here many fruits are bunched together.
The fruits though pulpy in the beginning, lose moisture and slowly dry out leaving the seed.
The seeds germinate to form new plants.