The carbohydrates are the major nutrients present in our daily food. These include the glucose, sucrose, starch etc.
They are primary sources of our body energy. Hence, major portion of our food comprises of the carbohydrates.
Glucose, sucrose, fructose are easily digested by mere dissolution in the water in the digestive system.
Where as the complex carbohydrates like the starch are digested in the presence of the enzymes.
When cooked, the starch molecules in food get hydrated and convert to easily digestible sugars like glucose, sucrose etc.
Hence, cooked food is preferred for better digestion and assimilation.
Examples of carbohydrates in our foods
Most foods we consume are good sources of carbohydrates
Most of the food we eat daily has cereals to a large extent. The bread, sandwich, roti, noodles etc. are made of cereals like wheat, rice, maize, bazra, Jowar etc. These cereals contain large quantities of carbohydrates.
The predominant carbohydrate in them is the starch. Since white rice, wheat are staple foods in some countries, people consume them daily for carbohydrate source.
As you know sweets are the food items which are made of different types of flours, milk, fats and sugar to a large extent.
These items contain abundant carbohydrates and hence, consuming them can shoot up the blood sugar levels to very high levels. They contain easily digestible sugars like Sucrose, glucose, fructose.
Most of the vegetables we eat in daily life are carbohydrates in nature. Ex: Potatoes They have high amount of carbs. Other vegetables have carbohydrates to varying degrees. But carbohydrate is their prime content.
Milk, curd, cheese have carbohydrates besides good amount of proteins and fats. They have sugars as lactose (milk sugar) in large amounts.
Fruits are the natural foods one can have in daily life. Unlike others, they do not need to be cooked.
They have sugars to varying extent based on the type of fruit.
For example fruits like mangoes, bananas, grapes, watermelon have more quantity of sugar.
While, the other fruits like orange, papaya have less quantities of sugar.
But as a whole, fruits are good to consume as they are rich in fiber and other nutrients.
Further, sick people doctors advice to adopt diets with complete fruit or fruit juice as they are easy for digestion. But in those with medical conditions like diabetes, consuming fruit juices can cause a spike in blood sugar levels.
Soft drinks like coke, Pepsi have large amount of sugars. Hence they are called energy drinks. Sugars break down to glucose and fructose in the stomach to provides instant energy.
But, having these soft drinks along with food can be injurious to health as they can shoot up sugar levels in blood.
The alcoholic drinks like wine or whiskey we consume also have carbohydrates to certain extent. Besides ethanol, they are mixed with varying type of cereal or other plant extracts to increase the bulk.
The common cereal (grain) material included is barley.
Examples: beer, wine, rum etc
Ice creams are the cold and soft substance liked by everyone. These are also rich in sugars. Hence they are sweet to taste. Besides, they have high amount fat material. Carbohydrates are added in the form of sugar.
Chocolates & cakes
Chocolates of all sorts have high amount of sugars. Hence, they are sweet in taste. Even ready made items like cakes, jams etc from bakery have carbohydrates to varying extent.
Biscuits are mainly made of cereal and corn material which are rich in carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are also present in many of the foods like leafy vegetables, pulses, mushrooms etc. Their presence can be ascertained by carbohydrate tests.
Examples of carbohydrates in biology
Some of the carbohydrates are readily available for energy supply, like glucose. While, others are present as reserve carbohydrates like glycogen for use in case of starvation.
These carbohydrates are pentoses, hexoses, heptose sugars. They are also available as oligosachharides, poly sachharides. They also form many cell organelles and tissues. They are also part of DNA, RNA like nucleic acids in and around the nucleus.
To stay healthy one has to have low carb diets. Low carb diets include highly protein rich foods.