Reptiles are animals that have four limbs crawling on their belly.
They mostly live in forest lands and waters.
Like snakes, some of them have no limbs, which others, like crocodiles, swim in the water.
These reptiles are thought to have evolved from amphibians.
They are egg-laying animals and nurture the eggs and raise the offspring.
They are mostly carnivorous in nature. But some of them are even herbivores.
They have a varying life span, like a few months to even a hundred years.
They have a four-chambered heart and scaly skin with prominent teeth. See a detailed list of characteristics of reptiles.
List of Reptiles
- Wall Lizards (Hemidactylus)
- Chameleons (Tree lizards)
- Worm Lizards
- Blind lizard
- Slow worms.
- Komodo dragons
- Marine iguana
These are animals that have a long and cylindrical body without any limbs. There are a vast number of species of snakes. Some of them live in water and seas, while other types are terrestrial.
They are fearful animals due to the presence of poison in their salivary glands. When in trouble, they try to protect themselves by biting and injecting poison into the enemy’s body. This poison, in most cases, is deadly and can kill an animal or person.
Not all snakes are poisonous and in fact, most snakes are non-poisonous. Especially the freshwater snakes are not poisonous. In contrast, those of marine and oceans are deadly poisonous. The poisonous snakes have two fangs, a pair of modified canine teeth. Hence a bite of a poisonous snake shows two punctured wounds. In comparison, that of a non-poisonous snake shows many bites.
Interestingly some snakes like anacondas are so gigantic. They can swallow even large animals, including humans. Other snakes feed on frogs, rodents, birds, and other mammals.
Examples include cobras, anacondas, vipers, mid snakes, coral snakes, rattlesnakes, etc.
Crocodiles and alligators
These are large lizard-like reptiles. They live in freshwater like rivers, ponds, etc. They are carnivorous in nature.
They can be of few centimeters to meters in length. They can move on land and tend to stay on land for a short time. They are fast swimmers and very dangerous when in water.
These are typically small lizards that live in human residences, trees, bushes, and burrows. They resemble crocodiles in appearances but have small scales on their bodies. Their teeth are also not prominent as crocodiles. They eat insects and other small worms.
Their specialty is in their ability to cling to the walls and other erect surfaces.
The legs have suction pads by which they can adhere to the erect and smooth surfaces without falling.
Also, their tails act as an organ of safety. They wag their tail at the appearance of any threat. When the predator holds the tail first, they detach from the tail and escape away.
The detached tail still moves to keep the predator focused on it and the lizard escapes. The lizards can grow their tail later.
These are also called tree lizards. They have distinctive colors than other reptiles. They also have the ability to change colors and match them with the environment.
A tree lizard can look like a part of the tree and is very hard to identify. Doing so is for their safety and evade their enemies.
These are limbless, subterranean reptiles having an elongated body in the range of 10-70 cms.
Their body is covered by skin having scales arranged like annuli (rings). Their head is shaped like a shovel and is hard enough to burrow through the soil. Their eyes and ears are small and covered with scales.
They are carnivorous animals and feed on invertebrates like insects.
Some of these species have forelimbs and are also viviparous.
These are class of reptiles which are similar to worm lizards but are blind. They have vestigial eyes covered by scales.
These lizards have an elongated body without limbs. But males have rudimentary hind limbs to help in coupling.
They feed on arthropods and earthworms.
These are also legless lizards found in the Eurasian region. They move slowly and can be found underneath objects. They feed on slow-moving worms and mollusks. Their eyes are small but functional.
These are large lizards and having thick skin. Their distribution is restricted to a few countries like Indonesia.
Their bite is toxic and has powerful teeth. Unlike lizards, they attack and eat birds, deer, and other mammals.
They are good hunters and carnivorous in nature. Their venom is thought to prevent blood clots, cause hypotension and even unconsciousness when bitten by them.
They grow up to a few meters in length and are very active in the movement.
These are the reptiles that live on land or water. Tortoises live on land while turtles live in water. These animals have the longest life span and are recorded to have lived for 200 years. They are egg-laying animals and hatch on land.
They have a strong cover or case which protects them from predators. They are shy animals and are herbivores. Tortoises eat grass, flowers, weeds, etc., while turtles also eat aquatic plants, they can also feed on insects, snails, and other small animals.
These are extinct reptiles and thought to have lived thousands of years ago on the earth. These dinosaurs are the largest animals ever lived on the earth.
Some of them were herbivores, while others were carnivores. Few species among them are believed to have had an ability to fly.
This is a marine lizard that is found in the Galapagos Islands. This reptile feeds on different kinds of algae available in the sea. Perhaps, this is a vegetarian lizard.