The forests are indispensable as they are lungs to the whole world.
They are the regions with a dense growth of trees and plants. Hence, they have a natural environment with many animals living in them. The forests help to
- Bring Rainfall
- Minimize the effect of natural calamities.
- Prevent soil erosion
- Decrease in pollution
- Provide food materials
- Source of medicine.
- Natural resources like wood
- Vacation and pleasure trips
- Provide Shelter for wild animals
- Scientific research.
Previously the whole of the landmass was occupied by forests.
But now one can see forests mostly in movies. There is widespread deforestation in the name of development.
More and more of the forest land is converted into agricultural land by the governments.
The role of forests is recognized recently due to the rise in global temperatures.
Even the seasonal and climatic variations are also due to excessive deforestation.
Importance of forest in Points
1. They Bring Rainfall
Forests are responsible for rains on the land. Due to forests, the clouds get cooled and convert to rainwater. So one can notice heavy rainfall in the areas of forests and around. Forests slower the monsoon currents (winds) and let the clouds move slower over land.
They help cool the temperature to convert water vapor in the clouds to water droplets and cause rain. Hence there are no rains in the deserts.
2. Reduce the effect of natural calamities
In the case of natural disasters like tsunami, floods, hurricanes, cyclonic winds. The presence of abundant forests helps us minimize the effects of these disasters.
Hence when there are tsunamis, the areas with more trees at the shore have less damage. Further, healthy forests are necessary to combat global warming.
3. Prevent Soil erosion
Soil erosion is a process where fertile top layers of soil are carried away by winds and water.
The top layers of soil are essential for the growth of crops and trees.
Soil erosion is a natural activity happening due to winds, rainstorms and floods.
The presence of forests helps to minimize this soil erosion in the nearby farms.
Rainstorms cause noticeable erosion in a short duration while the mild wind storms erode slowly over a long duration with more significant effects.
The presence of forests can slow down these winds and minimize the effect.
4. Minimize air pollution
Forests are called the lungs of the planet. The presence of forests nearby can reduce air, sound, and even thermal pollution.
Forest has many plants and trees which minimize air pollution due to gases like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, etc.
The wind on the earth moves from one place to another and reduces the concentration of harmful gases.
Similarly, gas and air pollution diffuses all over the air and get less severe.
The nearby forest helps to absorb these pollutants like carbon dioxide from the air by the trees. Hence, forests have environmental benefits too.
5. Mitigate global warming and climate change
The presence of forests is one of the reasons for low temperatures. When there is extensive deforestation, it leads to global warming and climate change drastically. The only way we can counter global warming and climate change is to go for extensive forestation.
That is why forests are to be grown extensively be countries as per the Paris climate accord.
6. Availability of food
Forests are the evergreen source of food materials. Even today, many tribes who live in forests away from the modern world survive in forests by eating food available there.
Many fruits grow naturally in the forest, like custard apples, blueberries, raspberries, etc.
People also relish the non-veg food processed from animals in the forests.
It is mostly obtained by cultivation using honey bees in controlled boxes. But honey from the wild forest has its taste and strength than the farmer made one.
7. Source of Medicine
Forests provide even essential drugs, like cinchona, cinnamon, eucalyptus, etc.
The smaller medicinal plants are grown by farming.
But drugs like cinchona available from large trees are available from forests alone.
8. Wood for Furniture
Forests are the sole reserve for the best wood needed for wood products. There are many kinds of woods for different purposes like insect repellent ones (neem), red sandal, teak, etc.
9. Vacation and pleasure trips
Nowadays, many forests are exploited as picnic spots. Though this may be disturbing to the native animals and people, the governments still encourage tourism revenue. There are various picnic and holiday packages offered to spend time amid forests.
10. Forest provide shelter to animals (Ecosystem)
Forests provide shelter to animals. They are some of the safest and comfortable habitats for animals and birds.
Many animals, birds can dwell peacefully without the threat of extinction in woods as it is a natural home for them.
They even find sufficient food for the day and live together with their herds or groups.
Forests are heaven for animals and nowadays as they do not find them and hence roam into areas of human dwellings.
11. Scientific research
Forests also give access to scientific studies and research. Many scientists spend time in forests to study the effect of circadian rhythm, animal behaviors, the effect of seasons, etc.
Thus the benefits of forests reach millions of people all over the world.
12. Economic benefits
Forest provides many resources that have significant economic benefits. Few countries economy depends mostly on forest products.
For example, the red sandalwood from the jungles is of immense value. Based on this, the governments are planning to capitalize on the sale of the wood.
Similarly, in other countries, the presence of rain forests attract a lot of tourists.