Importance of forest is indispensable as they are lungs to the whole world.
They are the regions with a dense growth of trees and plants. Hence, they have a natural environment with many animals living in them. The forests help in
- Bringing Rainfall
- Preventing soil erosion
- Minimize the effect of natural calamities.
- Decrease in pollution
- Provide food materials
- Source of medicine
- Natural resources like wood
- Vacation and pleasure trips
- Shelter for wild animals
- Scientific research.
Previously the whole of the land mass was occupied by forests.
But now one can see forests mostly in movies. There is widespread deforestation in the name of development.
More and more of the forest land is converted into agriculture land by the governments.
But the importance of forest is recognized recently due to the rise in the global temperatures.
Even the seasonal and climatic variations are also due to the excess deforestation.
Importance of forest in Points
1. They Bring Rainfall: Forests are responsible for rains on the land. Due to forests, the clouds get cooled and convert to rainwater. So one can notice heavy rainfall in the areas of forests and around. Forests slower the monsoon currents (winds) and let the clouds move slower over land.
They help cool the temperature to convert water vapor in the clouds to water droplets and cause rain.Hence there are no rains in the deserts.
2. Prevent Soil erosion: Soil erosion is an everyday natural activity happening due to winds and floods. Growing forests help minimize this soil erosion in the nearby farms. The importance of soil is too much that we cannot afford to lose the fertile top layers. This top layer of soil is essential to grow crops and trees.
Soil erosion can happen by rainstorms in short duration in a noticeable way. But it also occurs by the mild wind storms over a long duration with more significant effects. Presence of forests can slow down the winds and minimize this effect.
3. Reduce the effect of natural calamities: In the case of natural disasters like the tsunami, floods, hurricanes, cyclonic winds. Presence of abundant forests helps us minimize the effects of these disasters. Hence when there are tsunamis, the areas with more trees at the shore have less damage. Further, healthy forests are necessary to combat global warming
4. Home for animals (Ecosystem):
Forests are some of the safest and comfortable home providing habitats for animals and birds. Many animals, birds can dwell peacefully without the threat of extinction in woods as it is a natural home for them.
They even find sufficient food for the day and live together with their herds or groups. Forests are heaven for animals nowadays as they do not find them.
5. Minimize the pollution: Presence of forests nearby can reduce air, sound and even thermal pollution. Forest have many plants and trees which minimize pollution. The wind on the earth moves from one place to another and reduces the concentration of harmful gases. Similarly, gas and air pollution diffuses all over the air and get less severe. Presence of forest nearby helps to absorb these pollutants like carbon dioxide from the air by the trees. Hence, forests have environmental benefits too.
6. Economic importance: Forest provides many resources which have significant economic benefits. Few countries economy depends mostly on forest products. Forests cover a wide range of natural resources which are of excellent value for money.
For example, the red sandalwood from the jungles is of immense value. Based on this the governments are planning to capitalize on the sale of the wood. Similarly, in other countries, the presence of rain forests attract a lot of tourists.
Some of the notable examples of reserves with economic importance are
7. Medicine: Many plant drugs like cinchona, cinnamon, eucalyptus, etc. are grown in the forest.
The smaller medicinal plants are grown by farming. But drugs like cinchona available from large trees are available from forests alone. The medicines procured by this method are mostly, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, etc. Besides one can also get essential oils.
8. Wood for Furniture: Forests are the sole reserve for best woods needed for wood products. There are many kinds of woods for different purposes like insect repellent ones (neem), red sandal, teak, etc.
Honey: This is a sugary liquid produced by honey bees after consuming nectar from flowers. It is widely used in medicine, ice-creams, sweets and other confectionery. It is mostly obtained by cultivation using honey bees in controlled boxes. But honey from the wild forest has its taste and strength than the farmer made one.
9. Insect Wax: Lac insect produces this. They are found in forests, and the lac isolated is used for cosmetics and also a dye.
10. Tourism/Picnic spots/leisure:
Nowadays many forests are exploited as picnic spots. Though this may be disturbing to the native animals and people, still the governments encourage it for tourism revenue. There are various picnic and holiday packages offered to spend time amid forests.
Scientific research: Forests also provide huge chances for scientific studies and research. Many scientists spend time in forests to study the effect of circadian rhythm, animal behaviors, the effect of seasons, etc.
Thus benefits of forests reach millions of people all over the world.