Voges Proskauer Test | Principle, Procedure and Application of VP test

It is called the VP test, it is one of the tests for the identification of bacteria. In 1898, Voges and Proskauer, a German bacteriologist, first observed the production of red color in the cultures grown in specific media after the addition of potassium hydroxide. But later Harden revealed that red color was due to […]

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Cell Signaling | 5 Types with Suitable Examples

cell signalling

Cell signaling is a method of communication of one cell with other cells. This is done by following methods like Contact dependent cell signaling Paracrine signaling Autocrine signaling Endocrine signaling Synaptic signaling. Cells need to contact with other cells for normal physiology of the body. Sometimes they signal the nearby cells, and other times they […]

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Alcohol Reactions in Organic Chemistry and Synthesis

alcohol reactions

The alcoholic functional group is the –OH or hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom. Alcohol contains one or more hydroxyl groups directly attached to the carbon atom of an aliphatic chain. When the hydroxyl is attached to a carbon atom in an aromatic system, it is known as phenol. Alcohols are acidic in nature […]

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Reproduction in Plants | Their Types and Characters

Reproduction in Plants

Before we talk about Reproduction in Plants, it is important to understand its purpose. Every living organism has a fixed lifespan and dies one day. For the maintenance of the population of a particular organism, new organisms of that species must be produced. Thus reproduction is the process of production of new individuals from their […]

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PLANT KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION | 5 Major Divisions in Plant Biology


In this tutorial, we will learn about the Plant Kingdom Classification which is one of the major topics in Plant Biology. All living organisms are classified into five broad kingdoms – Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae. PLANT KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION Previously many members of Fungi, Monera and Protista which had cell walls were classified under […]

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Animal Kingdom Facts in Brief and Interesting Points

If we look around, we can see a wide variety of living organisms.   In earlier times it was quite cumbersome to remember all the characteristics of each organism separately. Thus all the organisms were classified into groups and subgroups depending on common anatomical and morphological characteristics, phylogenetic relationships, reproductive systems, etc. All living organisms […]

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Sympathetic vs parasympathetic System Difference

Sympathetic Vs Parasympathetic

Nervous System in human is broadly classified intothree board categoriesa) The Central Nervous System comprising of the brain and spinalcordb) The Autonomic Nervous Systemc) The Peripheral Nervous SystemHere, we discuss the Autonomic Nervous SystemAutonomic Nervous System controls the action of the organs at thesubconscious level. It is the part of system not under voluntary control.This […]

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Potassium Properties, Reactions and Uses

Potassium Properties

Potassium has an atomic number 19 and is located in group 1 of the s-block. It is located in the fourth period. It is classified under alkali earth metals as it belongs to group one. Though potassium is very abundant in nature, it is usually never found in the free state due to its high […]

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