Cell is a basic unit of life as it forms all of the living organisms.
The cell is classified into a primitive and advanced one.
The primitive one is prokaryotic while the advanced one is the eukaryotic cell.
The difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are based on internal and external characters.
But in general sense these cells are basically different terms of nucleus and its content.
So though we can see many differences in terms of physical, chemical and organelle structures, it is primarily nucleus based.
Hence the names pro=before (early) karyotic (nucleus) and Eu=True (current) karyotic (nucleus).
Below are the key differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
|Age on Earth||Recently evolved after billions of years of prokaryotes emerged||Primitive and existed much earlier than eukaryotes|
|Size||Cells are big and large with avg size of 10 to 100 microns in diametes||Cells are very small than eukaryotics with avg size of 1-10 microns|
|Nucleus||Is present and with well defined nuclear membrane and chromosomes.||Nucleus is absent but nuclear material like chromosomes are present.|
|Cell structure||Is complex with many organelles and their arrangement||Is quite simple with few organelles.|
|Reproduction time||Reproduction is slow and prolonged||Reproduction is very quick like in few minutes|
|Cell organelles present||Mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, microtubules, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus are present||All these organelles are absent in prokaryotes.|
|Chloroplasts||These are cell organelles involved in photosynthesis.||Chloroplasts are absent but chlorophyll pigment is present.|
|Cell wall||Made of steroids, ligninspectin etc.||Made of polysaccharides|
|Ribosomes||80S ribosome with two parts are 60S and 40S are present||70S ribosome with two parts as 50S and 30S are present.|
|DNA structure||Double stranded helical DNA||Single stranded DNA.|
|Examples||All animal and plant cells||Bacteria and few algae.|
Besides the DNA and nuclear elements are different as