12 Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis

Cell division is a process by which new cells are formed from old ones.

The cellular components especially the paired DNA strands (chromatids) split apart and again form into two new paired sets.

This formation occurs by two different methods viz. the mitosis and meiosis.

All the somatic cells of animals or plants undergo division by mitosis.

While the germinal cells which are responsible for sexual reproduction undergo meiosis.

Both the process has 4 steps in common viz.difference between mitosis and meiosis

  1. Prophase
  2. Metaphase
  3. Anaphase
  4. Telophase

Before going to the differences, you must read the details on mitosis and meiosis.

The Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis

Differences Mitosis Meiosis
OccurrenceIt is occurs in both Haploid cells and diploid cellsIt occurs only in diploid cells.
Type of cell involvedAll body cells or vegetative cells or somatic cells are involved.It occurs only in reproductive cells or germinal cells.
Nucleus divisionNucleus divides onceHere nucleus divides twice to produce 4 nucelii
Similarities of daughter cellsDaughter cells are identical to mother cellsDaughter cells are not identical
Number of cell formed.Two daughter cells are formed.Four daughter cells are formed.
ProphaseProphase is simpleProphase is complicated with many steps.
Chromosome pairingChromosomes do not pairHomologous chromosomes (similar) pair to form bivalent one’s.
Chiasmata and crossing overChiasmata is absent, Also there is no crossing overChiasmata present . Crossing over between non-sister chromatids occurs.
CentromeresCentromeres undergo divison in anaphasecentroemeres do not divide in anaphase-1 but divide in anaphase-2
Chromosome number in daughter cellsChromosome number in daughter cell is unchanged.Chromosome number is reduced to half of the parent cell.
Time duration for processThe entire cell division is short comparatively.Duration of cell divison is very large as it involves many steps..
UsesFor growth of body and in lower forms like bacteria, to multiply organism numbers.To help in gamet formation for sexual reproduction.

Thus the above chart ends here. It is very interesting to note that new cells are also formed without any of these two processes. Some divide by other methods completely devoid of these two processes. Ex: bacterial reproduction. Where cells form spores to give out a single cell from mother cells.

Also, the division of cells occurs in all the cells of the body except in the nerve cells of animals. Once they are formed during childhood, they never divide again in a lifetime.

The entire procedure takes some time and this time for division varies among animals and plants.

As the cells keep on dividing, they lose their ability further and get aged. Hence human cells after 50 divisions or so, die leading aging of the body. So the decrease in the rate of division may enhance the life span of the individual.

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