Difference between RNA and DNA in Shape, Chemistry, Function etc.
DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids which are present in almost all the living cells. There are few differences between the RNA and DNA due to which their role and function in the body varies considerably.
Difference between RNA and DNA
|1||Shape||RNA is present as a single|
strand in the form of a hairpin or loop structure. It may also have secondary and tertiary structures.
|DNA is present in the shape of|
anti-parallel helix with the 3′ end bonded with the 5′ end.
|2||Length||RNA is shorter with less nucleotides.||DNA is very long and each strand has more nucleotides than RNA|
|3||Location||mRNA is present in nucleolus, while tRNA and rRNA are present in cytoplasm.||DNA is present in nucleus, nucleolus and extra-chromosomal DNA is present in mitochondria and chloroplasts.|
|4||Types||mRNA (messenger) ,tRNA|
(transfer) and rRNA (ribosomal structural) are the main types.
|Different types of DNA like|
ADNA, BDNA (main form),
CDNA etc are present.
|5||Life span||RNA has shorter life span.||DNA has a longer life span.|
|6||Stability||RNA are less stable comparatively||DNA are very stable comparatively as they have to carry genetic information to next offspring.|
|7.||Sugar moiety||The sugar present is D-ribose.||The sugar present is D-|
|8||Nucleotide bases||Bases present are adenine,|
guanine, uracil and cytosine.
|Bases present are adenine,|
guanine, thymine and
|9||Bases ration||The number of purines and|
pyrimidines are mostly not
|Number of purines and|
pyrimidine are equal as per chargraff rule.
|10||Formation||RNA is formed from DNA transcription.||DNA is formed by self replication.|
|11||Function||RNA is involved in protein synthesis and also acts as an enzyme in few reactions.||DNA is involved in formation of RNA and also in cell divison.|