DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids that are present in almost all living cells. The differences between RNA and DNA are
- Chemical and
Difference between RNA and DNA
|1||Shape||RNA is present as a single strand in the form of a hairpin or loop structure. It may also have secondary and tertiary structures.||DNA is present in the shape of an anti-parallel helix with the 3′ end bonded with the 5′ end.|
|2||Length||RNA is shorter with fewer nucleotides.||DNA is very long, and each strand has more nucleotides than RNA|
|3||Location||mRNA is present in the nucleolus, while tRNA and rRNA are present in the cytoplasm.||DNA is present in the nucleus, nucleolus, and extra-chromosomal DNA is present in mitochondria and chloroplasts.|
|4||Types||mRNA (messenger), tRNA|
(transfer) and rRNA (ribosomal structural) are the main types.
|Different types of DNA like aDNA, bDNA (main form), cDNA, etc., are present.|
|5||Life span||RNA has a shorter life span.||DNA has a longer life span.|
|6||Stability||RNA is less stable comparatively||DNA is very stable comparatively as they have to carry genetic information to the subsequent offspring.|
|7.||Sugar moiety||The sugar present is D-ribose.||The sugar present is D-|
|8||Nucleotide bases||Bases present are adenine,|
guanine, uracil, and cytosine.
|Bases present are adenine,|
guanine, thymine and
|9||Bases ration||The number of purines and|
pyrimidines are mostly not
|The number of purines and|
pyrimidine are equal as per the chargraff rule.
|10||Formation||RNA is formed from DNA transcription.||DNA is formed by self-replication.|
|11||Function||RNA is involved in protein synthesis and also acts as an enzyme in few reactions.||DNA is involved in the formation of RNA and also in cell division.|
The two nucleotides differ in the number of strands. And as seen before, the DNA is made of two strands of nucleic acids while RNA is made of one strand of nucleic acids.
The double helix structure gives more stability and is less prone to changes over time.
The two differ in terms of the sugar molecule and the pyrimidine bases.
DNA has deoxyribose sugar while RNA has ribose sugar monomer.
For pyrimidines, DNA has thymine while RNA has uracil.
DNA is the memory of the organism’s structure and physiology. It produces the characters of the organism and even passes them on to the next generation.
RNA is meant to form proteins and its role is to pass on information from DNA to the cell.