Difference between RNA and DNA in Shape, Chemistry, Function etc.

DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids which are present in almost all the living cells. There are few differences between the RNA and DNA due to which their role and function in the body varies considerably.

Difference between RNA and DNA

Difference between RNA and DNA

Structural and chemical Difference between RNA and DNA

Sl.NoCharacteristicsRNADNA
1ShapeRNA is present as a single
strand in the form of a hairpin or loop structure. It may also have secondary and tertiary structures.
DNA is present in the shape of
anti-parallel helix with the 3′ end bonded with the 5′ end.
2LengthRNA is shorter with less nucleotides.DNA is very long and each strand has more nucleotides than RNA
3LocationmRNA is present in nucleolus, while tRNA and rRNA are present in cytoplasm.DNA is present in nucleus, nucleolus and extra-chromosomal DNA is present in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
4TypesmRNA (messenger) ,tRNA
(transfer) and rRNA (ribosomal structural) are the main types.
Different types of DNA like
ADNA, BDNA (main form),
CDNA etc are present.
5Life spanRNA has shorter life span.DNA has a longer life span.
6StabilityRNA are less stable comparativelyDNA are very stable comparatively as they have to carry genetic information to next offspring.
7.Sugar moietyThe sugar present is D-ribose.The sugar present is D-
deoxyribose.
8Nucleotide basesBases present are adenine,
guanine, uracil and cytosine.
Bases present are adenine,
guanine, thymine and
cytosine.
9Bases rationThe number of purines and
pyrimidines are mostly not
equal.
Number of purines and
pyrimidine are equal as per chargraff rule.
10FormationRNA is formed from DNA transcription.DNA is formed by self replication.
11FunctionRNA is involved in protein synthesis and also acts as an enzyme in few reactions.DNA is involved in formation of RNA and also in cell divison.
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