Hormones are chemical messengers in the body that are involved in the maintenance of body physiology. They work by
- The feedback mechanisms and
- Through the action on the specific receptors at the cellular level
The deficiency or the hypersecretion of these hormones can lead to severe hormonal disorders like diabetes mellitus, infertility, dwarfism, etc.
How do the Hormones Work
The method aims to control the levels of hormones in blood circulation.
The synthesis, storage, and release of hormones are strictly regulated by a mechanism involving feedback signals between the hypothalamus, pituitary, and endocrine glands synchronously.
The second method relates to hormonal action on the nucleus to bring out the effect.
Hormonal secretion and inhibition:
This happens in two steps.
- Signal by the simulator for Synthesis
- Inhibition of the secretion of the simulator.
Most hormones are secreted by stimulation from anterior pituitary hormones.
These hormones are synthesized and then secreted into the blood. When the blood levels reach a specific point, they are inhibited by on feedback signal.
The signal for synthesis: Hormonal synthesis is done by endocrine glands in the body. However, hormonal synthesis is initiated by a signaling pathway. This stimulated the glands to synthesize the hormone.
For example, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) regulates the secretion of thyroid hormones. TSH is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. This TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to synthesize thyroid hormones. The thyroid hormones like thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are formed as a result. These two hormones are then carried by the blood to all the tissues of the body.
Inhibition of stimulation/secretion: This is the inhibition of TSH secretion. When the blood levels of T3 and T4 are high, a feedback mechanism is initiated. This negative feedback inhibition signal stops the secretion of TSH. This hinders the further formation of thyroid hormones.
So, the secretion of TSH directly controls the formation and release of T3 and T4 hormones.
Hormonal action on the nuclear receptors:
This step is the actual mechanism by which the hormone’s action is seen at the cellular level. Hormones enter the cell membrane and the nucleus. There, they act on the nuclear receptor. This leads to conformational changes in the genes. This brings the protein synthesis to the nucleus and, thereby, the hormonal effect.