List of Hormones and their Functions

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the body.

They regulate the body’s physiology based on the signals from the brain.

They transfer the signal directly to the respective organ or system for the changes to happen.

So they are like messengers carrying a message from the brain to the other organs.

They are produced by the secretory cells of specific glands.

These glands are of different types, which synthesize and secrete the concerned hormone.

But they do not release them into the blood. Instead, the blood flows through these glands and carries them away.

So they are termed endocrine glands.

Most of the hormones are named after the gland from which they are secreted.
These are then carried by blood into target tissues, where they show their effect.

List of hormones

They regulate most of the body’s physiology and functions.

They bring such changes by acting at the level of genetic material or protein formation machinery of the cell.

These hormones, if deficient or in excess, can lead to hormonal disorders.

These can have a harmful effect on health and physiology.

So how many hormones are there in the human body?

Below is the comprehensive list, along with their functions.

Sl. NoHormone FunctionEndocrine Gland secreting
1Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Stimulates the thyroid gland to synthesize T3 & T4 hormones Hypothalamus (HYP)
2Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Stimulates cortex of adrenal gland to secrete glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (HYP)
3Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Stimulates the formation of growth hormones (HYP)
4Growth hormone inhibitory hormone (GHIH) (somatostatin) Inhibits the release of growth hormone, TSH, insulin (HYP)
5Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Controls release of Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. (HYP)
6Dopamine or prolactin-inhibiting factor (PIF) Inhibits prolactin secretion. (HYP)
7Growth hormone Stimulates growth of the body Anterior pituitary (AP)
8Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Releases T3 & T4 (AP)
9Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce (AP)
10Prolactin Stimulates milk formation (AP)
11Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Stimulates to form sperms in males and Ova in females. (AP)
12Luteinizing hormone (LH) Formation of Ova in females & production of testosterone (AP)
13Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (also called vasopressin) Limit water expulsion by the kidney. It also constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure Posterior pituitary
14Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) Regulates body metabolism and heat Thyroid
15 Calcitonin Reduces blood calcium by enhancing bone deposition, decreasing intestinal absorption, and expulsion by the kidney. Thyroid
16Cortisol Increases blood sugar levels and suppresses the immune system Adrenal cortex
17Aldosterone Regulates Na and K levels in bodyAdrenal cortex
18Norepinephrine, epinephrine Regulates Na and K levels in the bodyAdrenal medulla
19Insulin (β cells) It helps absorb glucose from the blood to tissue and is also released from the liver. Pancreas
20 Glucagon (α cells) It helps absorb glucose into the liver to form glycogen Pancreas
21 Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Regulates blood calcium levels Parathyroid
22 Testosterone It builds muscles, gives masculine character, and also stimulates the formation of sperm. Testes
23Estrogens Development of the female reproductive system. Ovaries & Placenta
24Progesterone Menstruation, Aids zygote implantation, maintenance of pregnancy & sexual drive Ovaries & Placenta
25Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Thickens uterus walls and stops menstruation.Placenta
26Human somatomammotropin Regulates metabolism and prepares mammary glands for lactation. Placenta
27Renin It helps maintain blood volume and, thereby, the blood pressure Kidney
281,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Rises blood calcium levels kidney/nephron
29Erythropoietin Stimulates the formation of red blood cells. Kidney
30Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Balance of water, sodium, potassium, and fat in the body Heart muscle
31 Gastrin To secrete gastric juice Stomach
32 Secretin Water levels and water balance in the body Small intestine/duodenum
33 Cholecystokinin (CCK) Stimulates fat and protein digestion in the intestine. Small intestine.
34 Leptin Regulates energy balance. Inhibits hunger if needed adipose cells
35 Ghrelin Stimulates hunger Gastro intestine

From the above list, the ones secreted by the hypothalamus, anterior, and posterior pituitary are formed in the brain.

While the remaining hormones are formed outside the brain, they are carried on by blood to different regions once released.

The hormones reaching the corresponding regions elicit their response.

It is quite impressive to note that the ones released from the brain also regulate the secretion of other hormones.

So it indicates that their secretion is controlled by the brain and indirectly all the other hormones too.

Thus the whole body physiology seems to be under the control of the brain.

Any emotional disturbance to the brain can lead to an alteration in the secretion of these hormones. Thus we can see that during emotional changes, we experience hormonal imbalance too.

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  1. depends..hormones can be tested via blood, urine and saliva..for different reasons…estrogen (there are 3 of them) is important for skin health..if a person has acne…it could be DHT..a negative form of testosterone that causes men to lose their hair and women to grow unwanted hair and cause acne around the chin line..also vitamin c is critical for skin health via collagen deposition…one should seek out a well trained integrative metabolic medical doctor…these are MDs that do NOT reach for a drug first…good luck

    • @Shweta! Its not about hormones alone. Because same set of hormones are in every one. But the mental upbringing, social view and external influences on a person are the causes. Hence you can notice good person getting violent due to frequent mind bashing.

  2. Allergic reaction or hormonal problem?? Dry eye and dry nasal passages..
    Please advise at your earliest convenience. Thank you.

  3. The lack of what hormone would cause nasal mucus and dry eye? Or is this an allergy/allergic reaction to an outside source? I was told by my gynecologist that my estrogen and progesterone was low. Please advise. Thank you.


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