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Inorganic Chemistry Definition|Examples & Applications

Inorganic chemistry is one of the branches of chemistry that deals with inorganic substances.

These substances can be both metallic and non-metallic.

They are exclusively called inorganic because they are devoid of carbon.

Chemically they are formed by ionic or covalent bonds.

Most of them are solids and crystalline in nature.

Inorganic Chemistry Definition:

“It is the subject dealing with synthesis, properties, reactions and the uses of compounds devoid of carbon.”

inroganic chemistry definition

Table salt (NaCl) used for food

Some Experts add to the exception that compounds which do not contain carbon-hydrogen bond are also inorganic.

This chemistry is one of the most extensive subjects as it covers many substances approximating to a few thousand.

Examples of inorganic chemistry include

1: Acids: HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, H3PO4, etc.

2. Bases: NaOH, Mg (OH)2, KOH, Ca(OH)2

3. Salts: NaCl, MgSo4, KCl, CaCl2.

4. Gases: Oxygen, nitrogen, CO2, etc.

5. Oxidizing agents: KMNO4, KClO4.

6. Reducing substances: NaHSO3 (sodium thiosulphate.)

Their reactions are also mostly by ionic bonds and also by covalent.

Most of them form just single bonds, unlike organic compounds. Organic compounds have multiple bonds between two atoms occasionally. Also, they can exist as electrolytes in the liquids. These electrolytes are charged ions and can move in the electric field.

Application of inorganic compounds.

The compounds are many, so we find them in a different set of uses in daily life.

Inorganic chemistry compounds find a lot of use in medicine and health care. The individual compounds and their uses are in the table below.

Examples of Inorganic Chemistry in medicine

Sl.NoInorganic compoundChemical formulaApplication & uses
1Magnesium hydroxide, Aluminum hydroxideMgOH
Al2(OH)3
As antacids to relive acidity & heart burns
2Sodium chloride, potassium chloride NaCl, KCLAs oral re-hydration salts. To relieve weakness in time of dehydration, diarrhea or vomiting.
3Sodium nitrite,
Sodium thiosulphate
NaNO2,
Na2S2O3
In cyanide poisoning & anti-oxidant
4Ferrous SulfateFeSO4In Anemia to enhance hemoglobin levels.
5Sodium fluorideNaFIn tooth paste to prevent dental caries
6OxygenO2For respiration

Besides medicine, we also use them at home for daily needs. Some of the examples are in the table below.

Examples of Inorganic Chemistry at home

Sl.NoInorganic SubstanceChemical formulaUses
1Table salt (Sodium Chloride)NaClTo give salt taste to food.
2Baking sodaNaHCO3In making cakes and other stuff.
3Washing sodaNa2CO3Used in washing of clothes
4Bleaching powderCaoCl2Used in cleaning and sterilizing drinking water, swimming pools etc.

Also, the inorganic substance includes all the minerals used in decoration items like talc, bentonite, steatite, etc.

Besides many ceramic products are made by the use of sand and other inorganic substances in combination. Even the electric circuits in computers are made of silicon which is sand-like substance. Hence the name silicon valley to the place of high use of computers.

Unlike organic compounds, they do not get spoiled when stored. They are also very stable to a large extent. They are comparatively cheaper and readily available.

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