Author Archives: Ranga.nr

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The Stages of Mitosis in Detail with Figures

the stages of mitosis

A cell divides by two processes namely the mitosis and meiosis. Of them mitosis is quite common as most types of cells undergo division by this methods. Where as meiosis is limited to very few cells like the reproductive cells. Stages of mitosis include Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cell division is the breakdown of the […]

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What is sodium hydroxide? Its Synthesis, Reactions and Uses

Sodium hydroxide is a very commonly used laboratory chemical. Its physical characteristics are it is white in color, odorless, has a crystalline texture and is solid. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic and corrosive compound. It melts at 591K and the crystals of sodium hydroxide are deliquescent i.e. the crystals absorb moisture from the air […]

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What is Endnote and How to Use It

what is endnote

An EndNote is a reference software which helps to edit references with ease. If you are a student, scientist or a researcher with some professional writing requirements, you may need a reference software. It was a huge struggle and time waste for me in managing references while writing a research paper before the introduction of […]

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Limit test for Lead | Procedure as Per B.P and U.S.P

limit test for lead

Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals and its presence is undesirable in medicinal substances. The lead contamination can occur due to the storage in glass bottles, lead-lined apparatus and also due to the use of sulfuric acid. Principle of Limit test for lead As per B.P, the principle of the limit test is […]

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Mass Spectrometry Principle,Types, Instrumentation & Applications

Instrumentation of mass spectrometry

Mass Spectrometry is an analytical technique used to determine the mass and molecular structure of a compound. Unlike other spectroscopy techniques, here the electromagnetic radiation is not used for excitation of electrons. Further, there is also no phenomenon of electrons moving in between the ground state and excited state. The principle of mass spectrometry is […]

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NMR Spectroscopy Principle, Instrument and Applications

NMR instrument

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one that studies the spin changes at the nuclear level. This spin change occurs when a radio frequency energy is absorbed by the nucleus in the presence of a magnetic field. Principle of NMR spectroscopy In an atom with an odd mass number, the proton (nucleus) spins on its own […]

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Limit Test for Iron with Principle and Procedure

Limit test for iron

Limit test for iron is a semi-quantitative test used to check the iron impurities in an official sample. Principle: This test is based on the reaction of thioglycolic acid with iron in the given sample. A purple colored ferrous thioglycolate salt is formed. The color intensity is compared with that of a standard substance containing […]

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Limit Test for Sulfates Principle and Experimental Procedure

Limit test for sulphates

Limit test for sulphates is based on the principal of precipitation of sulfate ions by barium chloride. It is done to check the extent of sulfate impurities in officially prepared products. Principle: The test depends on the interaction between the sulfate ions with the barium chloride in the presence of hydrochloric acid. BaCl2 + SO42———————> […]

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Limit Test for Chloride | Principle, Procedure and Experiment

Limit test for chlorides

Limits test for chloride is a semi-quantitative analytical test. It is performed to identify the traces of chloride impurities which are likely to be present in a substance. The quantity of chloride impurity in an official substance is often small. So, the visible reaction response of any test for that substance is very small. The […]

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