What is the Difference between Dopamine and Serotonin

Dopamine and serotonin are both neurotransmitters in the nervous system. They play an important role in the behavior and body physiology.

But they differ from each other in many aspects, like

  1. Their Chemistry
  2. Physiological role
  3. Psychological effects
  4. Role in diseases
  5. Metabolism, etc.,

Differences between Dopamine and Serotonin

1FunctionsAs a neurotransmitterIt acts as a neurotransmitter and a hormone.
2Chemical structureFrom neurons originating in the substantia nigraThere are 4 receptors D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5.
3SynthesisIt is synthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine.It is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan.
4Secretion in brainIt is mostly located in the brain and, to some extent, in the blood vessels, kidneys, paracrine cells, etc.By nuclei that originate in the median raphe of the brain stem.
5Location in bodySerotonin regulates the secretion of dopamine, besides other neurotransmitters.Almost 90% of it is located in the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive system.
6Metabolism enzymesIt is metabolized by both COMT and MAO enzymes and also aldehyde dehydrogenase.Both COMT and MAO enzymes metabolize it and also aldehyde dehydrogenase.
7ReceptorsThere are 4 receptors; D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5.There are 14 receptors like 5HT1 as (1A,1B,1D), 5HT2 as (2A,2B,2C), 5HT3, 5HT4, 5HT5, 5HT6, 5HT7.
8AutoreceptorD2 receptor inhibits the release of dopamine 5-HT1A receptor inhibits the release of serotonin
9RegulationDopamine secretion is stimulated by stress and the HPA axis.Vitamin D and tryptophan regulate the synthesis of Serotonin.
10MechanismsIt has an inhibitory effect in the basal ganglia, while in other brain areas, it has an excitatory effect.It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
11Effect on the nervous system It influences pleasure, causes addictionLike depression, anxiety, psychosis, irritable bowel syndrome, and autism.
12On physiologyIt has effects on body movements, lactationIt affects almost the whole body. It influences eating, digestion, sleeping, bowel movements, excretion, coagulation, wound healing, etc.
13Role in diseases likeIt stabilizes mood, and happiness enhances communication in the nervous system.It has a role in Parkinson’s disease, psychosis, drug addiction, and anxiety.


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