What is the Difference between Dopamine and Serotonin

Dopamine and serotonin are both neurotransmitters in the nervous system. They play an important role in the behavior and body physiology.

But, they differ with each other on many aspects like

  1. Their Chemistry
  2. Physiological role
  3. Psychological effects
  4. Role in diseases
  5. Metabolism, etc.

Difference between Dopamine and Serotonin in structure

Differences between Dopamine and Serotonin

Sl.NoFeatureDopamineSerotonin
1FunctionsAs a neurotransmitterAs both a neurotransmitter and a hormone.
2Chemical structureChemically it has a catecholamine structureChemically it has a hydroxytryptamine structure
3SynthesisIt is synthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine.It is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan.
4Secretion in brainFrom neurons originating in substantia nigraBy nuclei that originate in the median raphe of the brain stem.
5Location in bodyIt is mostly located in the brain and to some extent in the blood vessels, kidneys, paracrine cells, etc.Almost 90% of it is located in the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive system.
6Metabolism enzymesIt is metabolized by both COMT and MAO enzymes and also aldehyde dehydrogenase.It is metabolized by only MAO and aldehyde dehydrogenase.
7ReceptorsThere are 4 receptors like D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5.There are 14 receptors like 5HT1 as (1A,1B,1D), 5HT2 as (2A,2B,2C), 5HT3, 5HT4, 5HT5, 5HT6, 5HT7.
8AutoreceptorD2 receptor inhibits the release of dopamine 5-HT1A receptor inhibits the release of serotonin
9RegulationDopamine does not regulate the secretion of serotoninSerotonin regulates the secretion of dopamine besides other neurotransmitters.
10MechanismsIt has an inhibitory effect in the basal ganglia, while in other brain areas, it has an excitatory effect.It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
11Effect on the nervous system It influences pleasure, causes addictionIt stabilizes mood, happiness, enhances communication in the nervous system.
12On physiologyIt has effects on body movements, lactationIt affects almost the whole body. It influences eating, digestion, sleeping, bowel movements, excretion, coagulation, wound healing, etc.
13Role in diseases likeIt has a role in Parkinson’s disease, psychosis, drug addiction, anxiety.Like depression, anxiety, psychosis, irritable bowel syndrome, autism.

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