10 Important diseases caused by virus and fungi in humans
Virus and fungi are different set of pathogens which cause diseases.
But unlike others, the diseases caused by them are obstinate and pose severe danger.
Viral fevers, jaundice and colds are the common disease caused by the virus.
While systemic (in blood) and superficial skin infections caused by fungus.
Virus are non living entities which are particles having genetic material and a protein capsule. The genetic material can be either either DNA or RNA. See structure of virus.
They act as parasites for their multiplication by taking over the protein machinery of the host cell.
They can infect almost all the living cell i.e. plant cells, animal cells, bacteria, algae and even yeast cells.
While the fungi are multi-cellular microscopic organisms which can survive as parasite in the body leading to disease.
Diseases caused by virus and fungus in humans
The diseases caused by virus and fungi are quite different in nature and severity. They affect both animals and plants.
They are mostly caused by transmission from one person to another.
The viral is non-living, so once out of the body dies. But it can infect from one person to other. Once infected, it can stay there for long.
The viral diseases are so devastating that many towns lost huge population due to deaths. So they are kept under control by use of vaccines.
List of diseases by virus in humans include.
1. Skin diseases: Small pox, chicken pox. These cause pustular skin eruptions. They spread by air from person to person by sneezing etc. The symptoms can be severe and if untreated can cause death.
2. Gums and buccal cavity: Mumps causes swelling of throat (parathyroid gland).
3. Brain: Encephalitis can cause brain damage and death.
4. Eye: conjunctivitis.
5. Ear: labyrinthitis.
6. Respiratory tract: Flu, Colds etc.
7. Blood: Measles, AIDS, Dengu fever
8. Bone: Polio.
9. Liver: Hepatitis-B, C, D & E, yellow fever.
10. Heart: Myocarditis.
In plants: The virus of plants are quite different from animals. They have different genetic material. They can cause severe infection to plants in agriculture and farming.
Leaf mosaic: In tobacco, tomato, beans, chilli, brinjal etc.
Malformation of mango, leaf roll and curl in potato and papaya respectively.
They are treatable using anti-viral drugs to certain extent.
Diseases caused by fungi:
Most of the fungi damage foods, while some fungi like mush rooms are even consumed as foods.
But fungus can also diseases by infection. Fungi are spread from external sources to internal. That is from skin to blood and so on. The transmission from human to humans is very low.The infection by fungus is mostly two types like
External infection: This is mostly seen on the skin, nails etc. These are treatable and not so dangerous. They are sometimes influenced by seasonal changes and food habits of the patient.
1. Skin: They mostly cause ringworm like tenia pedis on foot, athletes foot, (on skin, nails, foot, hands, groin etc.)
2. Mucous: Inflammation of mucous membranes like mouth. tongue, vagina etc.
3. Ear: causes otomycosis an infection in ear by Aspergillus.
4. Eye: Corneal infection called fungal keratitis.
Internal infection. These infections are systematic (i.e. in the blood), they are dangerous and life threatening. They can directly produce a disease by primary infection.
Liver: Histoplasmosis an infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
Lungs: Cocidiomycosis which causes pneumonia. It is an infection from external soil to humans by air.
Blood: Candidiasis. It can affect other important organs like heart, brain.
Kidney: This type of infection occurs in kidney transplant patients.
But in many cases the fungal infections are due to secondary infection as a side effect of anti-biotic therapy.
In normal conditions, the fungus growth is kept under control by vegetative bacteria.
But when antibiotics are used to in disease conditions, the normal friendly bacteria are also killed.
This leads to uncontrolled invasion of fungi in the body. This is called as secondary infection. Individual with cancer, diabetes etc are also more susceptible to fungal infections.
Ex: Systemic candidiasis, Aspergillosis, Penicilliosis etc.
Even yeast infections are also prominent now a days. Unlike bacteria, the fungal cell organelles are not quite different to humans. So using anti-fungal can cause side effects to humans also.