Enzyme Immobilization: Applications in diagnosis & medicine
Enzyme immobilization is a technique to produce stable enzymes.
This is an important technique for storage & use of enzymes for commercial purposes.
Enzymes are bio-catalysts formed inside the body of animals, plant and cells.
They have diverse role on the physiology and when isolated out of the body for external use they get damaged easily.
Hence forth immobilization is a technique adopted to isolate enzymes and store them externally for long duration.
This is the only method by which one can use the enzymes at their full potential, to complete extent and also for multiple usage (reusable) without destruction.
This enzyme immobilization is a complex yet scientifically proven process.
The process involves extraction, purification and stabilization of the enzymes.
Enzyme Immobilization methods & techniques:
1. Extraction of crude enzyme.
2. Preparation of crude enzyme.
3. Purification of Enzymes.
4. Final processing. Which includes reaction of enzyme with inert substances in reactors to make them immobile.
Application of Immobilized Enzymes in Medicine and Drug Manufacture
In production of Antibiotics:
Immobilized “pencillinase” is used in converting Pencillin-G or V to 6-amino pencillinic acid.(6-APA).
From this 6-APA Ampicillin is produced using immobilized enzyme “pencillamidase.”
Other examples include: Bacitracin, tyrosine, nikkomycin are manufactured using suitable immobilized enzymes.
Production of Steroids:
Prednisolone is produced from cortisone using immobilized enzyme obtained from curcuria lanata.
To produce amino acids:
Immobilized “L-aspartase-4-decarboxylase” enzyme helps in conversion of L-Aspartic acid to L-Alanine an amino acid.
In production of L-DOPA:
L-DOPA is a drug used in treatment of Parkinsonism. This can be produced by using immobilized enzyme “β-tyrosinase.”
In production of: Co-enzyme-A (Vit-B5), Pro-insulin, interleukin-2, prostaglandins, monoclonal anti-bodies.
To produce medicinal plant derivatives like anthraquinone (a glycoside to relieve constipation).
Application in Diagnosis of Medical Conditions
Immobilized enzymes are used to study the type of disease present in the patient and also to study the pathological conditions.
Immobilized enzyme “Aldolase” is used in diagnosis of muscle disorders.
“Glutamate oxalo acetate transfrerase” to diagnose myocardial infarction.
“Iso-citrate dehydrogenase” is used in diagnosis of acute hepatitis.
Prostate cancer is detected using immobilized enzymes “Acid phosphatase.”
In Organo phosphorous poisoning (like pesticide poisoning), enzyme “Choline esterase” in RBC cells is used for diagnosis.
Further immobilized enzymes like “Alkaline phosphatase” and “β-lactamase” are used in analysis of antigens and antibodies.
Immobilized enzymes are also used as bio-sensors to measure the concentration of biologicals in the body fluids.
Kinetic reactions which involve the measurement of percentage conversion of substrate into product and also to study the rate of reaction are done by immobilized enzymes.