Enzymes as we know are the bio catalysts which enhance the rate of reaction.
They have diverse role in the body as they are involved in the process of most biochemical reactions.
There are many types of enzymes like those which help in breakdown, synthesis, reduction, oxidation, hydration etc.
So their function is involved in all the 12 body systems in some or other way.
Function of Enzymes
Enzymes are involved in critical body functions like
3. Blood pressure control
4. Excretion in kidney
5. Blood clotting
6. Nervous system control
7. Repair and wound healing
Digestion: Enzymes are the key molecules which process the digestion in the body. Amylase breaks down carbohydrates, proteases breakdown protein and lipases breakdown lipids. Due to this break down, they are easily absorbed into the blood stream.
Metabolism: Metabolism is the important process to remove toxic waste from our body. When we consume so many foods and beverage items, they are broken down and excreted trough urine or other route.
This breakdown is done by many enzymes in the liver. Liver is the major organ where most of the function occur due to many enzymes . It is only organ with highest number of enzymes and its dysfunction can be easily diagnosed by blood enzyme tests.
Blood pressure control: The pressure of blood in the vessels is to some extent controlled by a hormone angiotensin from renin angiotensin system. This is converted from angiotensin-1 to angiotensin-11 by an enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme. Inhibition of this enzyme helps decrease the blood pressure in high blood pressure patients.
Excretion in kidney: Excretion through kidney is done by nephron. Nephron filters the blood and also the loop of it secretes few substances.
Blood clotting: Clotting is a protective feature to prevent loss of blood in case of injury. Thrombin is the enzyme which activate clotting factors and enable clotting. It specifically convert fibrinogen to fibrin there by forming insoluble clot strands.
Nervous system control: Nervous system regulates the whole body and physiology. Neurotransmitters are the substances which help in the process. These neurotransmitters once released would help in nerve conduction and other functions. Their action is terminated once they are broken down by enzymes. For example neurotransmitter acetylcholine acts on nicotinic receptors and is broken down by acetylcholine esterase enzyme. If it is not broken there would be persistent effects like seen in pesticide poisoning.
Repair and wound healing: Enzymes are also involved in wound healing process.
Reproduction: Sperm the male gamete unites with the ova in the uterus. This sperm when released travels through the uterine tissue and reaches the ova. An enzyme namely hyaluronidase is released from the sperm tip (acronym) and this helps in tearing and penetration of sperm through the tissue to reach the ova.
Respiration: Enzymes are also helpful in the physiology of respiration. There is an enzyme namely carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells. This enzyme helps to convert carbon-dioxide to carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions.
Secretion: Enzymes are also responsible for few secretions in the body. For example an enzyme called Proton potassium ATPase enzyme is involved in the secretion of gastric acid (HCl) in the stomach which aids in digestion.