Cilia vs Flagella | 15 Prominent Differences

cilia vs flagella

Cilia and Flagella are cell organelles which protrude out of cytoplasm and are meant for external functions of cells. Cilia are small hair like structures coming out of cytoplasm of many animals and cells. Flagella are long thread like or whip like structures protruding out of cytoplasm through cell wall. Cilia and Flagella are cell […]

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Production of Monoclonal Antibodies | 5 Steps and Applications

Production of Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are set of antibodies which are target specific against a single source of antigen. A recent development in cell biology has allowed the fusion of different cells to form a “hybrid’ cell, which expresses the properties of both parental cell lines. The fusing agent can be a defective virus (Sendai virus that characteristically […]

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Cnidaria Characteristics | Points based on Anatomy and Physiology

Cnidaria Characteristics

Cnidaria is a class of animals which are found in marine and aquatic environments. They come under coelenterate phylum. Cnidaria Characteristics The cnidarians are defined as the “diploblastic metazoa with tissue grade organization. They are referred to as the simplest metazoan. The body wall is made up of two layers viz, ectoderm, and endoderm. Hence, […]

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Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms | 20 Clear Differences in Points


Gymnosperms are considered as primitive plants while the angiosperms are advanced. There are few characteristic differences between them. Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms Sl.No Charecter Gymnosperms Angiosperms 1 Basic feature These are non-flowering plants which produce seeds These are flowering plants which produce seeds. 2 Seed feature The seeds are naked and found in scales, leaves, or […]

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Anatomy of the Root of both Dicot and Monocot Plants


The roots are a very important organ in plants. They develop from radicle and help in absorption of water and minerals from the soil that are required for the plant life. The roots fix the plant to the ground and provide support to the part of the plant above-ground. In few plants like rhizomes, roots […]

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RNA Translation | The 3 Step Process of Protein synthesis

rna transcription

The translation is a process by which ribosomes present in the cytoplasm (on  endoplasmic reticulum) synthesize the proteins from an mRNA. The RNA Translation occurs by 3 steps like 1.Initiation 2. Elongation 3. Termination. A protein is a polypeptide that has a sequence of the amino acids coded by the mRNA. There are different types […]

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DNA Transcription |3 Step Process in mRNA formation

dna transcription

Transcription means a written version of something. So, a DNA transcription means formation of a copy of DNA strand. “The process by which the DNA sequence is read and the complementary RNA molecule is formed is called transcription.” Thus the DNA codes for RNA strand which will then code for the protein. Before transcription can […]

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Cell Membrane Transport | 6 Types with Examples

facilitated diffusion

Cell membrane is a delicate organ of the cell which regulates movement of substances into and outside the cell. The cell membrane transport occurs in two major ways like 1. Passive transport Passive diffusion Facilitated diffusion Osmosis. 2. Active transport. Sodium potassium pump Bulk transport (phagocytosis and pinocytosis) Cell Membrane Transport The structure of cell […]

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Electrons in Carbon |Their Valency and Configuration.

Electrons in carbon

Carbon belong to the 2nd period of the periodic table. It is located in ‘P’ block. Thus the outermost electrons of the atom are present in the ‘P’ orbital. It can form bonds with itself which is termed as concatenation. Electrons in carbon Carbon is present in group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon has […]

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