3 Hormones Types| Their Chemistry and Role in Human Body

A hormone is chemical mediator which is formed and secreted by some specialized glands.

These glands are called endocrine glands. They are also formed by a few cells especially the nerve cell.

They regulate the cell and body physiology.

To have an idea of all the hormones in the body, read the article list of hormones in the body.

The hormones can be differentiated based on the chemical structure, mode of action, organ secreting them, etc.

The different types of hormones:

Based on chemical nature the hormones are divided as

Peptide hormones

  1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
  2. Corticotropin-releasing hormone
  3. Growth hormone-releasing hormone
  4. Growth hormone inhibitory hormone (somatostatin)
  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    Mammary glands form milk by oxytocin on of the Hormones Types

    Mammary glands secrete milk due to the hormone oxytocin

  6. Growth hormone
  7. Thyroid-stimulating hormone
  8. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  9. Prolactin
  10. Follicle-stimulating hormone
  11. Luteinizing hormone
  12. Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin
  13. oxytocin
  14. Calcitonin
  15. Insulin
  16. Glucagon
  17. Parathyroid hormone
  18. Human chorionic gonadotropin
  19. Human somatomammotropin
  20. Renin
  21. Erythropoietin

Peptides in general form proteins. Though they are not proteins, they can be considered as sub-proteins. They are made mostly on the surface of the nucleus, i.e., on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Their structure can be lengthy but is less complex. Their metabolism leads to the formation of amino-acids and then urea.
Steroid hormones

  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Estrogens
  • Testosterone
  • Progesterone
  • 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol
  • Atrial natriuretic peptide
  • Gastrin
  • Cholecystokinin
  • Leptin
  • Secretin.

These hormones are steroidal. That is chemically they are formed from fats and lipids in the body.  Their metabolism can lead to the formation of fatty acids and ketones.

Amine hormones

  • Dopamine or prolactin-inhibiting factor
  • Thyroxine (T4) & triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Norepinephrine.

These hormones are made of amines. Chemically their structure is simple.

Lack of hormones can lead to hormonal diseases in living beings. This deficiency may arise mostly due to improper diet, aging and improper lifestyle. They are mostly long standing and to rectify; they are to be supplemented externally.

Hormones are not limited to humans and animals alone. There are also hormones in plants, insects and other smaller living organisms.

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