Energy is the invisible yet the driving force of the entire universe.
Energy takes different forms but is never destroyed.
Based on its nature and character, it is of different types.
These varying types of energy help to carry out diverse and different functions in the universe.
7 Types of Energy:
- Chemical energy
- Mechanical energy
- Thermal energy
- Electric energy
- Magnetic energy
- Kinetic energy
- Potential energy.
Chemical energy: This is the energy that is present in the bonds of the atoms and molecules of matter. This is the one which is also the source of life on earth. For example,
Sunlight is stored as energy by plants in the form of carbohydrates. The light rays when fall on the green leaves of plants, it is absorbed and used to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates by use of Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Thus energy from sunlight is trapped as chemical energy.
This glucose and other carbohydrates are broken down in animals to release the stored energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This ATP is useful to fuel the movement of the muscles, the functioning of organs in the body, and also the generation of body heat.
Thus the energy stored from sunlight is converted to
chemical energy and then used to keep life on earth.
Electrochemical energy is another form of chemical energy that is generated due to the voltage potential generated between chemicals. This is the principle used in batteries to generate energy.
Mechanical energy: This is also another form of energy that causes the physical movement of the objects. This energy is the sum of both potential and kinetic energy.
Heat energy is converted to mechanical energy as seen in the movement of automobiles. Also, mechanical energy can be produced by electricity as seen by the movement of fans due to magnetic energy. Mechanical energy can be measured in terms of work done. The hydropower produced by falling water in dams is due to the mechanical rotation of turbines.
Thermal energy: It is heat energy and can be felt and measured as temperature. This energy is produced due to the burning of substances, irradiation of light rays, nuclear energy, and even friction. This energy can be easily converted to mechanical energy, electricity, and also light energy. This energy is very useful for human activities like in transport, electricity generation, cooking, molding of tough metals, sterilization, etc.
Electric energy: This is the energy that is produced due to the movement of electrons in the metallic wires. This energy is very fast in its motion and hence can reach distant places in a fraction of seconds. This is widely used in modern human life. All the lights, bulbs glow due to electric energy.
All the electronic devices can run only in the presence of this energy. This energy can also be easily converted into mechanical energy as we can notice the trains, fans, water pumps, etc running due to it. Even there are automobiles like cars and bikes which are under development which can run by the use of electricity.
Magnetic energy: This energy has a difference to other types of energy in that it attracts or repels objects near it. This energy is thought to be formed due to the movement of electrons in an object. This energy has opposite poles like north and south. When opposite sides come together, there is attraction and when the same side comes nearer, they get repelled. This magnetic energy is useful in the production of movement in electric machines like fans and motors.
Kinetic energy: This is the energy present in an object during its motion. For example, when a ball is thrown up, it goes up due to kinetic energy and falls down due to it. But when the ball stops moving up, there is a small log, it stands still for a fraction of seconds. At this juncture, the energy in the ball is potential energy. It is also seen in swings and roller coasters. This kinetic energy is also different forms like light rays, radiation energy. Here the photons of light or nuclear material move due to kinetic energy.
Potential energy: This is the energy that is present in many forms like gravitational energy, elastic energy. This is energy is seen in moving objects are those inactive form about to move. Thus both kinetic and potential energy can be present in the same object.