Here we will see bacteria vs virus differences in terms of structure, habits, parasitic nature and other features.
Bacteria vs Virus
|1||Living Organism||Yes they are independent Living||They are non living outside the host and partially living inside the host.|
|2||Cell feature||Bacteria are single-celled organisms||Virus are Acellular. That it is not cell but just a particle|
|3||Size comparision||Bigger in size, and can be seen by a light microscope.||Smaller in size, cannot be seen by microscope. Only an image can be obtained by an electron|
|4||Outer wall||It has a distinct cell wall which is made of peptidoglycan||It has an outer sheath or cover which is made of proteins|
|5||Genetic material||Genetic material is DNA||Genetic material can be either RNA or DNA|
|6||Ribosomes||Bacteria has it own ribosomes for protein synthesis||No ribosomes are present so they utilize host ribosomes for protein synthesis|
|7||Metabolism||Has metabolic machinery||Has no metabolic machinery and is dependent on host cell.|
|8||Crystallization||They cannot be crystallized.||A group of virus can be crystallized|
|9||Food habit||Autotrophs, chemotrophs, saprophytic and parasitic||Does not need food to survive, but act as parasites by taking over host machinery for multiplication.|
|10||Life cycle||Irrespective of host, bacteria has cycle with birth, growth and cell division.||Virus has only one process i.e. multiplication inside a host.|
|11||Reproduction||Reproduction by binary fission||Reproduction by lytic infection|
|12||Reproduction help||It does not need host cells to reproduce||It needs host cells to|
|13||Infect||Bacteria infect animals, plants and fungal cells||Virus infect bacteria, animals, plants, fungi, archaea, and protozoan cells.|
|14||Diseases||Bacteria causes diseases like tuberculosis, typhoid, anthrax in humans||Serious Viral diseases include AIDs, rabies, chickenpox, polio, etc.|
|15||Drugs||Bacteria are killed by antibiotics||Viruses are controlled by antiviral drugs|
|16||Support to human||Though bacteria are harmful to man, some are very beneficial for life||Viruses are always harmful.|
|17||Examples||Mycobacterium, vibrio cholera||Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis Virus.|
Though bacteria and viruses are both classified under microorganisms due to their minuscule size and are infectious to humans, in reality, they are quite different. We can observe their differences in many contexts.
Bacteria are microscopic, unicellular organisms with simple cell structure with no nucleus or other organelles like mitochondria. They are classed under prokaryotes as their nuclear material is not enveloped within a membrane inside the cell.
Viruses do not have a cellular structure. When outside the host organism the virus has a core of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA that encodes the structure of the proteins. This core is surrounded by a protective protein code called capsid which protects the genetic material within. In some cases, an outer envelope of lipids is present, which looks like a spiky coat. Viruses can latch onto host cells and insert their genetic material inside.
Living or nonliving?
This is the most important question to be asked when it comes to viruses and bacteria.
Bacteria are considered living organisms and are classed under the Monera kingdom in the ‘Five kingdom classification.’ Most bacteria have a cellular organization and can reproduce without a host. They use energy for metabolism, can maintain homeostasis, and they have the ability to grow.
Viruses do not have a cellular organization; they do not contain cytoplasm or cell organelles. Outside the host cell, they cannot carry out metabolism, and they can only replicate using the host cell’s metabolic machinery. Viral components are synthesized within the host cell. They are dependent. Thus they are considered to be between living and nonliving and are not given any kingdom under the ‘Five kingdom classification.’
Bacteria are larger and can be seen with a light microscope. They have a diameter of about 1000 to 2000 nanometres. Viruses are usually smaller in seen and are observed using an electron microscope. They have a size of about 20nm to 1000nm (maximum).
The outer cell wall in bacteria is made up of peptidoglycan(also called murein) and lipopolysaccharides. In viruses, the cell wall is a protein coat called a capsid present around the inner genetic material. Sometimes this capsid is surrounded by another spiny coat called an envelope.
Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes. Bacterial cells contain DNA and organelles inside the cytoplasm surrounded by a cell wall. Bacteria can obtain energy from the environment and reproduce using these organelles. Thus bacteria have their own metabolic machinery.
Viruses are acellular. They have an outer protein coat with the genetic material inside. They do not possess any metabolic or genetic machinery. They do not have organelles or cellular structure.
Bacteria can be found in many shapes. The common bacterial shapes are – cocci (spherical), spiral (spiral/helical), vibrio (comma-shaped), bacilli (rod-shaped) etc.
The shape of viruses depends on the structure and composition of the outer protein coat. The common virus shapes are – polyhedral (in adenovirus), spherical (in influenza), helical (tobacco mosaic), complex (bacteriophage), etc.
The genetic material of bacteria is DNA. The genetic material is naked.
Bacteria contain ribosomes of the Type 70S ( 50S and 30S). These ribosomes can participate in translation and code proteins from mRNA. Thus bacteria have their own genetic machinery and do not need host cells to multiply.
Viruses do not contain ribosomes. They contain either DNA or RNA. Thus they cannot make their own proteins and need host cells to reproduce.
Bacteria can reproduce and produce new progeny on their own. This is due to the presence of ribosomes that can synthesize proteins and other genetic material.
Viruses cannot reproduce on their own. They latch onto the host cell and use the genetic machinery of the infected host cell.
Mechanism of reproduction
As bacteria are prokaryotic, they reproduce asexually. This occurs mostly by binary fission. Here one cell divides into two daughter cells. It does not need the host to multiply.
Viruses need a host to multiply. The protein coat of the virus attaches to the host cell and inserts its genetic material into it. Thus when the host is replicating its DNA, it also forms copies of the virus’s genetic material. Thus the virus can now multiply. The genetic material of the virus also codes for viral components using the host cell’s ribosomes. The cell bursts or lyses releasing the copies which infect further cells. This is called lytic infection.
Bacteria infect the animal, plant and fungal cells. Viruses infect the animal, plant, fungal and even archaea and bacterial cells. The type of virus that infects bacteria is known as a bacteriophage.
Bacteria are living and thus respond to antibiotic treatments. Viruses are nonliving and thus do not respond to antibiotic treatments. Antibiotics cannot kill viruses. Viruses are treated with antiviral drugs.
Common diseases caused by bacteria are tuberculosis, typhoid, anthrax, food poisoning, etc.
Common diseases caused by viruses are AIDs, rabies, hepatitis B, chickenpox, polio, flu, measles, etc.
Viruses can be crystallized in the laboratory due to their outer protein structure. Bacteria cannot be crystallized.
Bacteria can be saprophytic or parasitic, while viruses are only parasitic.
Many bacteria are useful to us like lactobacillus, gut bacteria, etc. Viruses are always pathogenic.