Bacteria are some of the robust living cells on the earth.
They are immortal creatures i.e. they do not die as such except under harsh conditions.
They are quite primitive living organisms on the earth and are of various types.
They cause various diseases to human, plants, and animals. While some of them are friendly and useful bacteria.
The difference between a bacterial cell and a human cell are quite many.
They are single-cell organisms and their cell is less developed compared to the human cell.
But interestingly that single cell can perform all of its functions.
Hence we find some interesting differences between them. Before you go into details, kindly check cell and its organelles
Difference Between Bacterial Cell and Human Cell
|Differences||Bacterial cell||Human cell|
|Cell||Cell is isolated and Independent. It survives as an individual on its own.||Human cells are in a group and not isolated. It is dependent on other cells for survival.|
|Cell wall||Thick protective cell wall is present covering the whole cell.||The wall is absent|
|Cell membrane is made of||Is made of phospholipid bilyaer. But the memebrance lacks sterols.||Lipid bi-layer with phosphate molecules. It is hydrophilic to external and hydrophobic in the inner wall.|
|Cell membrane has||No cytoplasmic bridges as there is only one cell.||Cytoplasmic bridges are present which help in inter-cellular transport in between neighboring cells.|
|Cell shape||Cells can be of different shapes||Only spherical or oval|
|Cell appendages (External parts)||Present. Flagella for movement, pili for sexual reproduction.||Absent mostly. Except for ciliated cells in respiratory tract & gut.|
|Nucleus||Nucleus is Absent. Instead nuclear content like DNA are present in cytoplasm. No distinct nucleus, so called as prokaryote||Prominent nucleus with nuclear membrane. So called as an eukaryote type.|
|DNA synthesis & Elongation||Enzyme DNA Gyrase is involved.||Enzyme Topoisomerase is involved|
|RNA (ribo nucleic acid)||70 s type with 50s and 30s type sub units.||80 s type with 60 s and 40 s sub units.|
|Capsule (a form of inactive cell)||Bacterial cell under goes to form capsule which is resistant to harsh condition of drought and temperature. Can give back live bacteria in good conditions.||Absent|
|Cell death||Bacterial cell is immortal. It never dies unless subjected to sterilization. Divides for new offspring’s. Even in harsh conditions it tries to survive as spore form (dormant)||Human cell is mortal. Cell dies by either apoptosis or necrosis.|
|Nutrition||Autotrophic, heterotrophic, parasitic etc. Autotrophs manufacture their own food. Disease causing bacteria are parasites & live on other organisms.||Heterotrophs. Depends on the food supplied by blood from body gut.|
|Reproduction||Both sexual and asexual reproduction happens||Asexual reproduction only.|
|Cell division occurs by||Mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis gives two cells and meiosis gives fur cells||All cells undergo mitosis. Only ovum and sperm formation by meiosis. While nerve cells never divide.|
|Movement||Can move on their own with flagella for normal needs.||Cannot move, except for sperm and ova. While blood cells flow in the fluid.|
These differences are the key to the treatment of bacterial diseases by use of antibiotics.
Without such differences, it would be difficult to target and kill bacterial cells once they get into the human body.
The bacteria have peculiar differences which scientists use as a target. Antibiotics in the human body act in such a way that only bacterial cells are killed while sparing human cells.
Some of the common targets to achieve this safe drug action are the cell wall, 70s ribosomes, DNA gyrases etc. etc. Ex: Penicillins kills bacteria by acting on their cell wall. Since human cell lacks a cell wall, human cells are not affected by it. Similarly, streptomycin acts only on 70s ribosomes and prevent their protein synthesis while in human cells there are 80s ribosomes. So they are not affected by the antibiotics.
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Besides, the translation a process which is involved in the formation of a new protein from m-RNA is quite different in bacteria.
In humans, the m-RNA formed by transcription comes out of the nucleus and then goes for translation over the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
But in bacteria, there is no nuclear membrane. So the formation of mRNA and the formation of protein synthesis happen almost simultaneously.