Analytical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that tries to estimate and determine the actual chemical entity in a given sample.
When a packed food item is taken, we can find the details of its components to like carbohydrates, proteins, saturated fats, sodium chloride, etc., mentioned in grams or milligrams. This is ascertained by the use of analytical chemistry methods in the food processing industry. This is done to check for the presence of harmful substances and also inform the consumers of what they are getting in the pack. So analytical chemistry is part of our daily life.
The Analytical chemistry examples include
- Chromatography methods
- Gravimetric analysis
- Photometric analysis
- Colored reactions
- Sedimentation methods
- Electrochemical methods
- Limit tests
In any substance, there are different types of compounds present. Each compound will have its chemical effect on the whole substance. So the compound types, their concentration will help us understand the final properties and effects on the whole.
These are probably the basic and most common methods of analysis followed. The analytical chemistry examples are complete with these titrations like acid-base titrations, redox titrations, complexometric titrations, precipitation titrations. These methods help to understand if the sample is acidic, basic, has heavy metals, oxidative substances, complex chemicals, etc.
This a method of separation of compounds from a sample mixture. Once separated, the individual compounds are analyzed. There are different types of chromatography methods suitable for a variety of analyses.
This is a method where a compound is derived from the mixture and weighed in dry form. An example is the estimation of sulfates.
Here substances are separated under the influence of electric current. Once separated, they are determined for their molecular weight, structure, etc. Gel electrophoresis is a common technique to determine nucleic acids like DNA, RNA, other molecules like proteins in western blot.
A widely used method wherein the color of the substance determines the main ingredient in it. It is routinely used for diagnosis in health care.
These are basic reactions and used for the analysis of a substance. For example, glucose in the blood can be tested by using a test for carbohydrates. The concentration is measured by the amount of reagent consumed in the reaction. Similarly, many substances like organic compounds, metals like sodium, inorganic chemicals like iron, sulfate, chlorides can be analyzed by color reactions like limit tests, etc.
Microscopy mostly relates to physical analysis. Here the size of particles or crystals is analyzed. This is done to define the powder particles of characters, crystal structures, etc.
As the name indicates here, the tendency of solid particles to settle down in a solution is checked. This rate of sedimentation of particulate matter helps to check the type of particle, its shape, and also density.
When a substance is dissolved in water or another solvent, it forms a solution. Sometimes at high concentrations, this solution tends to form crystals and becomes turbid. Turbidometry involves the measurement of turbidity. This test is also used in the microbiological identification of bacteria.
These methods involve chemical reactions and electrical detection. These types of analyses are done as potentiometric titration, conductometric titrations, amperometric titration, etc.
These are semiquantitative tests used to check for limits of impurities in official samples. These are called semiquantitative because exact concentration is not measured. Instead, the intensity of color produced in the reaction is checked. Read limit tests for chlorides.
Uses and applications include
1. Quality control: The quality of drugs, food materials, cosmetics, nutraceuticals are directly applied to the body. So they have to be the least toxic with the highest purity. This can be achieved by keeping a check on quality by use of analytical chemistry techniques.
2. Identification of new compounds: Any substances found in nature can be evaluated for their chemical properties and their nature can be identified.
3. Research and development: Analytical methods are widely used in research and also technological development.