Chemistry is a branch of science dealing with matter and its properties.
But the subject is so vast and detailed that it has to be read in branches and sub-branches.
Since all the branches are useful to man, they are also offered as part of a different set of courses and degrees.
They are useful in either medicine, technology, food or environment which makes it essential to study them.
What are the Branches of Chemistry
1. Organic chemistry:
As the name implies it can be assumed that this deals with something related to living beings. Though it is true, in scientific terms, it is the study of carbon compounds. It includes the study of all the possible compounds which have a carbon in them. However, some define organic chemistry as the study of compounds having carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Because pure carbon compounds like graphite, coal and diamond are non-reactive and are least studied in this branch of chemistry.
There is vast number of compounds which have diverse chemical properties. They find their uses in medicine, food, agriculture, sterilization, disinfection and also research.
Examples of compounds studied in this branch include; carbohydrates, benzene, amino-acids, vinegar, phenol etc.
For a complete list, read examples of organic compounds along with their structure.
What is studied: In general the study includes synthesis, identification, purification, breakdown and also methods to discover new compounds and their applications.
2. Inorganic chemistry: This is the chemistry which studies compounds devoid of carbon. This has a huge list of chemical which is naturally found in nature and also synthesis in the laboratory. However, it seems that the number of the compound under this inorganic chemistry are lesser than those in organic chemistry.
The inorganic compounds find their use in medicine, food, agriculture and also technology.
Examples of compounds in this branch include
Acids: Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid. ; Salts: sodium, potassium chloride; Alkalies: like Aluminum hydroxide, calcium hydroxide etc.
3. Biochemistry: This chemistry as the name implies is the study of biological chemistry. That is, it deals with chemistry happening inside the living bodies of animals and plants. This subject is huge and plays an important role in medicine, agriculture, poultry, fisheries etc. This helped in understanding the actual physiology of our bodies and cause of diseases.
It deals with four major biochemicals like
- Fats (lipids) and
- Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA).
and also few supporting elements like enzymes, vitamins and hormones.
In plants, it explains the process of photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration. In animals, its describes digestion, metabolism, excretion, respiration (energy formation) and also nerve conduction.
Its applications in daily life includes glucose estimation (diabetic patients), fermentation etc.
4. Physical chemistry: As the name indicates, it deals with physical properties of chemicals or substances. It includes topics like gaseous laws (Dalton law), thermal conduction in liquids, gases, solids. the conductivity of electrolytes (used in batteries) liquids etc. It also deals with processes like sublimation, melting point, boiling point, crystal structure of compounds etc.
This chemistry finds its applications in other branches of chemistry besides daily applications in industries, automobiles etc.
5. Medicinal chemistry: This chemistry is specifically confined to health care. Most medicines are of chemical nature. They are either organic or inorganic compounds. They have therapeutic potential due to their chemical nature. Hence this chemistry tries to study reasons of the therapeutic property in the compound like its ability to bind to receptors, enzymes, bring changes in the chemistry of the body etc.
The study includes evaluation of SAR (structural activity relationship). This means when a functional group is changed or the position of an atom or functional group on the structure is changed, it leads to better efficiency and fewer side-effects. The study also includes discovery of new compounds for medicine. Besides new methods to synthesize the compound at less cost are explored.
6. Analytical chemistry: This chemistry specifically deals with the analysis of chemicals. Analytical chemistry plays a key role in the quality control of products in the industry. Also in research, analysis helps to identify and also explore properties of compounds. There are so two types of analysis like qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Qualitative analysis deals with the estimation of the quality of compound and determination of impurities. While quantitative analysis estimated the amount of the main compound in the given sample. Most methods of analysis estimate both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The study describes different methods of analysis like
- Titrimetric analysis by using titrations
- Electro-conductive methods
- Electrophoresis etc.
7. Nuclear chemistry: This branch of chemistry deals with radioactive elements. Their behavior like fission, fusion reactions etc. This chemistry finds application in making atomic bombs, atomic energy for generating electricity.