Category Archives for "Biology"

Exotoxin Vs Endotoxin | 25 Differences, Types and Examples

Exotoxin Vs Endotoxin

Bacteria release substances that are harmful to the host. These are exotoxins and endotoxins. Exotoxins are toxic substances that are secreted by bacteria outside of their cell. While the endotoxins are toxins located within the cell membrane. Exotoxin Vs Endotoxin Sl.NO Characteristics Exotoxins Endotoxins 1 Source Produced from the live gram-positive and gram-negativebacteria. They are […]

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Digestive System of Frog | With Functions and Labelled Diagram

frog digestive system dissected

The digestive system of the frog includes the alimentary canal or alimentary tract and the various associated digestive glands. Digestive System of Frog The alimentary canal of the frog is complete. The alimentary canal is a long, coiled tube of varying diameter that extends from mouth to cloacal aperture of the frog. Alimentary canal comprises […]

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Hydra Biology | A Glance into Digestive System and Reproduction

hydra biology

Hydra is a fresh water organism belonging the phylum Cnidaria. It is a multi-cellular organism, yet it is not highly evolved in terms of anatomy like other animals. Hydra Biology This can be studied in terms of Nutrition. Digestion Egestion Respiration Excretion Nervous system and Reproduction. NUTRITION: 1. Food Hydra is exclusively carnivorous. They devour […]

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Nucleic Acid Functions in the Body

Nucleic Acid FUNCTIONS

DNA and RNA are considered as nucleic acids. These are vital molecules present in all the living cells on the earth. Interestingly they also found to be present in space as per NASA. These nucleic acids are involved in three basic processes in our body like the replication, transcription and translation. However they do have […]

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Parts of Roots and their Functions

Parts of Roots

The root is the descending part of the plant axis which lies inside the soil. The root typically does not contain chlorophyll and therefore it is non green. It bears  lateral branches and a protective cap at the apex. Root doesn’t have nodal divisions; however it is divided into five main areas on the basis […]

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Differences Between Chromosomes and Chromatids

Differences Between Chromosomes and Chromatids

Chromosomes are genetic material present in the cell nucleus. Chromatids are the parts of the chromosome present as two arms. Sl. No Characteristics Chromosomes Chromatids 1 Basic They are nuclear components that play a vital role in heredity, mutation, variation, and evolutionary development of the species These are part of chromosomes. During mitosis, the chromosomes […]

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Cilia vs Flagella | 15 Prominent Differences

cilia vs flagella

Cilia and Flagella are cell organelles which protrude out of cytoplasm and are meant for external functions of cells. Cilia are small hair like structures coming out of cytoplasm of many animals and cells. Flagella are long thread like or whip like structures protruding out of cytoplasm through cell wall. Cilia and Flagella are cell […]

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Cnidaria Characteristics | Points based on Anatomy and Physiology

Cnidaria Characteristics

Cnidaria is a class of animals which are found in marine and aquatic environments. They come under coelenterate phylum. Cnidaria Characteristics The cnidarians are defined as the “diploblastic metazoa with tissue grade organization. They are referred to as the simplest metazoan. The body wall is made up of two layers viz, ectoderm, and endoderm. Hence, […]

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Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms | 20 Clear Differences in Points


Gymnosperms are considered as primitive plants while the angiosperms are advanced. There are few characteristic differences between them. Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms Sl.No Charecter Gymnosperms Angiosperms 1 Basic feature These are non-flowering plants which produce seeds These are flowering plants which produce seeds. 2 Seed feature The seeds are naked and found in scales, leaves, or […]

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Anatomy of the Root of both Dicot and Monocot Plants


The roots are a very important organ in plants. They develop from radicle and help in absorption of water and minerals from the soil that are required for the plant life. The roots fix the plant to the ground and provide support to the part of the plant above-ground. In few plants like rhizomes, roots […]

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