Lab glassware are the essential parts of most experimental labs like chemistry, biochemistry, biology, genetics.
There are a number of lab ware for use made of different material.
But glassware are more common due to time tested use and suitable for almost all the experiments.
Lab ware made of glass are preferred due to many advantages like
- Being Chemically inert to the sample and reaction mixture taken.
- Ability to withstand high temperatures during heating like upto 500degree.
- Ease of cleaning, drying and also environment friendly disposal.
- Low cost and long duration of performance.
- They can also be sterilized by heat if needed.
Due to above reasons lab glassware are quite famous. So lets see them one by one
Lab glassware used in most labs
1 Glass Beaker
2. Measuring cylinder
3. Conical flask
4. Test tube
5. Round bottom flask
6. Volumetric flask
7. Filtration flask
9. Separating funnel
Lets see their features and uses in detail
1. Glass beaker: This is a plain and simple cylindrical trough made of glass. It is transparent and has flat bottom. It is available in various size like 10ml, 25ml, 50ml, 100ml, 250ml, 500ml and even 1000ml.
The glass beaker has readings on the surface to indicate volume levels in the container.
This beaker finds its use in
a) To store liquids like solvents, solutions, reagent mixtures, oils etc.
b) To mix a substance into liquid solvents.
c) To make solutions by rigorous stirring procedures
2. Measuring cylinder: It is similar to beaker but has very less diameter and more height. It has graduations on the surface to indicate the liquid volume in it. It is widely used to take a desired volume of liquid into a beaker.
It find its use when the amount of sample to be measures is more than 5ml or 10ml. If less than this, pipette can be used for more accuracy.
- To measure and take a desired volume of liquid.
- To make up final volume of mixtures by small additions using pipette.
3. Conical flask:
A conical shaped glass apparatus with round bottom. It does not contain graduated readings in most cases. It is mostly available in sizes like 25, 50, 100, 250 ml.
- Widely used in titrations like acid base, redox, complexometry etc. Since the mixture requires constant stirring, the sample is taken in conical flask and the reactive agent is added from burette drop by drop till with constant swirling of the flask and its contents till the end point.
- It can also be used for reactions involving heating. Since the mouth is narrow, the fumes of reaction can be made to escape safely without exposing the lab interiors.
4. Test tube: These are the most commonly used glassware in the labs. They are also required in large numbers as small amounts of reagents can be taken at a time. They are mostly non-graduated as one can just add a desired volume from a pipette or burette. They are of different sizes, like 5ml, 10mk, 15ml etc. They have curved bottoms and not flat like measuring cylinders.
- For storing small volumes of samples.
- For heating reactions by taking small amount of mixtures using test tube holder.
- Most chemical tests are done using test tubes.
5. Round bottom flask: The round shaped transparent flask with ability to hold liquids and has narrow mouth. Available in shapes like 100ml, 250ml, 500ml etc.
- For distillation of solutions, where in the substance is taken in the flask and heated from the bottom.
- For mixing of the substances in liquids.
6. Volumetric flask: A fixed volume flask used to make molar solutions. It is round at the bottom with a long narrow neck. See the page for more details on the flask.
7. Filtration flask: The flask is similar to conical flask with a small vent on the side to connect with a vacuum.Uses: This flask is especially needed for filtration and crystallization of extracts in chemistry lab.
8. Funnel: The funnel as we know is a equipment to pour solvents and liquids into a narrow mouth bottles.
Uses: This helps safe transfer of liquids and also prevents spillage and wastage.
9. Separating funnel: A conical shaped flask which has an inlet and outlet. It can hold liquid without leaks when closed with stopper on top.
When two or more immiscible solvents are mixed, the solvents gets separated in two layers. The vent at the bottom of the flask can be opened and individual solvents can be drained out.
Uses: This is useful for separation of substances from a mixture based on their polarity or solubility. Ex: Lipids can be separated from an aqueous extract by using petroleum either.
10. Burette: It is a long cylindrical shaped tube like glass ware. It has uniform diameter along the length and a stopper know and outlet at one end and a mouth on the other end.
Uses: It is widely used in titrations. It is used to hold the titrant and add it to the reaction mixture (titrand) drop by drop.
Pipettes are the glass ware having narrow path with graduations over the surface. They are used to transfer small amount of liquids with precise volumes.