Plant Cell Parts | Their Structure and Functions

Plant cell parts are almost similar to animal cells with few exceptions and functional differences

These plant cells are eukaryotic cells

The plant cell is rigid and hard than the animal cells.

Further, plant cells are green in color due to the presence of special pigments which aid in photosynthesis.

Though there are many similarities, still we can find many differences between plant cell and animal cell in terms of cell organelles and other cell components.

Plant Cell Parts

1. Cell wall
2. Cell membrane
3. Cytoplasm
4. Mitochondria
5. Lysosomes
6. Peroxisomes
7. Chloroplasts
8. Golgi apparatus
9. Endoplasmic reitulum
10. Nucleus
11. DNA, RNA
12. Plasmadesmata

plant cell parts | structure

1. Cell wall: Plant cell has a rigid cell wall which is the outer most of the cell. It is made of chitin, lignin and other materials. It transforms as primacy cell wall and latter secondary cell wall. It is also called as the exoskeleton and give rigidity and shape to the cell. Besides, it protects the entire cell from harsh environmental conditions. It prevents drying of the cell but helps passage of few substances like water.

2. Cell membrane: This is also called a plasma membrane and is present adjacent to the cell wall. Cell membrane incorporates cytoplasm and other cell components. It is a lipid bi-layer and selectively permeable to a few substances like water.

3. Cytoplasm:  This is a fluid matrix consisting of cell organelles, water and other dissolved substances in it. This cytoplasm helps in distribution of materials through the entire cell through rotation called cytoplasmic streaming.
Besides, it also forms inter-cellular bridges for better communication. These cytoplasmic bridges are called plasmodesmata.

4. Mitochondria: These are the energy-producing organelles. Mitochondria are called as powerhouses and help to supply energy for the entire cell needs. These are oval shaped and have single strand DNA which helps in its self-replication.

5. Lysosomes: These are the cell organelles which are attached to the cell membrane. They help to digest the proteins in the cell and also act as suicidal bags to destroy the entire cell in case the cell gets damaged beyond repair. Further, they prevent any foreign harmful substances from entering the cell.

6. Peroxisomes: These organelles are present near the nucleus and help metabolize lipid substances. They are also involved in photosynthesis.

7. Chloroplast: These organelles are the key component for photosynthesis. They have colored pigments namely chlorophyll which help in absorption of light and traps the energy to synthesize carbohydrates.

8. Golgi apparatus: These are sac-like structures and help in the modification and transportation of proteins and other substances in the cell.

plant cell part | Diagram

Credit: LadyofHats/

9. Endoplasmic reticulum: This is a network of membranous structures attached to the nucleus. It is of two types as rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This helps in protein synthesis and also lipid synthesis.

10. Nucleus: This the master control of the cell. It has DNA the genetic material which decides the character of the plant. It controls cell division, RNA synthesis, protein synthesis, etc. See How is nucleus involved in protein synthesis for details.

11. DNA and RNA: These are genetic material which contains the cell characters. DNA is present in the nucleus and also in the mitochondria. While RNA is present in the nucleus and also cytoplasm.

12. Plasmodesmata: As mentioned before, these are cytoplasmic bridges which help the transfer of components in between the cells. They help in cell communication, exchange of nutrients, waste material, etc.

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