Plant Cell Parts | Their Structure and Functions

Plant cell parts are almost similar to animal cells, with few exceptions and functional differences.

These plant cells are eukaryotic, rigid, and have greater cell volume than animal cells.

Further, plant cells are green in color as they have unique pigments that aid in photosynthesis.

See the differences between plant cells and animal cells regarding cell organelles and other components.

Plant Cell Parts

  1. Cell wall
  2. Cell membrane
  3. Cytoplasm
  4. Mitochondria
  5. Lysosomes
  6. Peroxisomes
  7. Chloroplasts
  8. Amyloplasts
  9. Golgi apparatus
  10. Endoplasmic reticulum
  11. Nucleus
  12. DNA, RNA
  13. Plasmodesmata
  14. Vacuole
plant cell parts | structure

1. Plant Cell wall

  • A plant cell has a rigid cell wall, which is the outermost of the cell.
  • It is made up of chitin, lignin, and other materials.
  • It transforms into a primary cell wall and later into a secondary cell wall.
  • It also acts as the exoskeleton and gives the cell rigidity and firm shape.
  • The plant cell wall is absent in gametes.

Its functions include

  1. To protect the entire cell from harsh environmental conditions.
  2. To prevent drying of the cell by loss of water.
  3. Allow the passage of a few substances like water into and out of the cell.

2. Cell membrane

  • This is also called a plasma membrane and is present adjacent to the cell wall.
  • It is a lipid bi-layer and selectively permeable to a few substances like water, electrolytes, and nutrients.

3. Cytoplasm

  • This fluid matrix consists of cell organelles, water, and other dissolved substances.
  • This cytoplasm helps in the distribution of materials through the entire cell through a process of rotation called cytoplasmic streaming.
  • Besides, it also forms inter-cellular bridges for better communication.

4. Mitochondria

  • These are the energy-producing organelles.
  • Mitochondria are called powerhouses and help supply energy for the entire cell’s needs.
  • These are oval-shaped and have single-strand DNA, which helps in their self-replication.

5. Lysosomes

  • They help digest the cells’ proteins and act as suicidal bags to destroy the entire cell in case the cell gets damaged beyond repair.
  • Further, they prevent any foreign harmful substances from entering the cell.

6. Peroxisomes

  • These organelles are present near the nucleus and help metabolize lipid substances.

7. Chloroplast

chloroplast and important plant cell organelle
  • This is a unique organelle present only in plant cells and is absent in animal cells.
  • These organelles are the seat of photosynthesis.
  • They have colored pigments, namely chlorophyll, which help absorb light and trap the energy to synthesize carbohydrates.

8. Amyloplasts

These are small double-layered organelles that produce and store starch.

They are colorless and denser due to starch in them.

They are also called statoliths and help in gravity sensing in plants.

9. Golgi apparatus

These are sac-like structures and help in the packaging and transporting of proteins and other substances in the cell.

plant cell part | Diagram
Credit: LadyofHats/

10. Endoplasmic reticulum

  • This is a network of membrane-bound structures attached to the nucleus.
  • It is of two types as
  1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum and
  2. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
  • This helps in protein synthesis and also lipid synthesis.

11. Nucleus

  • It is the master organelles that control the cell.
  • It has DNA, the genetic material that decides the plant’s character.
  • It controls cell division, RNA synthesis, protein synthesis, etc.

See How the nucleus is involved in protein synthesis for details.

12. DNA and RNA

  • These are genetic material that contains cell characteristics.
  • DNA is present in the nucleus and also in the mitochondria.
  • At the same time, RNA is present in the nucleus and also cytoplasm.

13. Plasmodesmata

  • As mentioned before, these are cytoplasmic bridges that help transfer components between the cells.
  • They help in cell communication, exchange of nutrients, waste material, etc.
  • Since plants do not have a circulatory system, these plasmodesmata help move material in between cells. And the vessel cells help in the movement of sap material through the whole plant.

14. Vacuoles

Every plant cell has a central vacuole that primarily stores water, carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids.


  1. Botany: An introduction to plant biology.
  2. Amyloplasts
  3. Chloroplasts and photosynthesis.

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