Systemic Enzymes | Their Examples and Uses

Systemic enzymes are those which are present in almost all regions of the body.

Unlike the localized enzymes present in the digestive system or liver, these enzymes are present in every cell, tissue, and body region.

Systemic enzymes examples

  1. Proteolytic enzymes
  2. Plasmin
  3. Ceruloplasmin
  4. Alcohol dehydrogenase
  5. Cyclooxygenase (COX)
  6. ATPases
  7. Creatinine kinase
  8. Lactate dehydrogenase

Proteolytic enzymes

Proteolytic enzymes are those that help in the breakdown of proteins. These enzymes, like hydrolase, renin are found in the blood.

Hydrolases are those that catalyze the breakdown of molecules by the addition of water molecules.

Renin is an enzyme formed in the kidneys and released into the blood. This helps in the regulation of blood pressure by acting on angiotensinogen protein.

Plasmin

This is a protease enzyme that destroys clots in the blood. This keeps clots away and avoids chances of stroke due to blood flow blockage. This enzyme is released as plasminogen from the liver into the blood, converting to an active form called plasmin.

Ceruloplasmin

It is an enzyme in the plasma of blood that holds 95% of copper ions.

If it does not hold copper ions, it can lead to an imbalance in homeostasis.

Similarly, if this enzyme is overloaded with copper, it loses zinc and again leads to disorder.

Alcohol dehydrogenase

This is an enzyme that converts alcohol into an aldehyde.

It helps to break down alcohol like ethanol or methanol in the body. This enzyme is good as it destroys alcohol and relives from the kick the drink gives.

However, this same has to be inhibited in the case of methanol poisoning treatment.

Cyclooxygenase synthase

Also called COX enzymes or Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. These are of two types as COX-I and COX-II.

COX-I is constitutional, while COX-II is an inductive enzyme.

These enzymes synthesize prostaglandins from cell membranes by the use of arachidonic acid.

They are also involved in the formation of different prostaglandins. Hence, anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin inhibit the COX-I and stop prostaglandin formation.

This prevents further inflammation and pain. This enzyme inhibition sometimes has untoward side effects like gastric pain.

ATPases

These are a set of enzymes like adenyl-pyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphates, etc.

They help in the breakdown of the ATP into ADP and thereby release energy.

Creatinine kinase

This is an enzyme found in muscles, the brain, the heart, blood and other tissues.

In muscles, it helps in the storage of energy as phosphocreatine.

Lactate dehydrogenase

This is found in almost all the cells of our body. It helps in the conversion of pyruvate to lactic acid to produce energy in the cells.

Leave a Comment