Systemic enzymes are those which are present in almost all the regions of the body.
Unlike the localized enzymes present in the digestive system or liver, these enzymes are present in every cell, tissue, or body region.
Systemic enzymes examples
- Alcohol dehydrogenase
- Cyclooxygenase (COX)
Plasmin: This is a protease enzyme that destroys clots in the blood. This keeps clots away and avoids chances of stroke due to blood flow blockage. This enzyme is released as plasminogen from the liver into the blood, converting to an active form of an enzyme called plasmin.
Ceruloplasmin is an enzyme in the plasma of blood which holds copper ions. If this enzyme does not hold calcium, it can lead to an imbalance in homeostasis. Similarly, if this enzyme is overloaded with calcium, it loses zinc and again leads to disorder.
Alcohol dehydrogenase is an enzyme that converts alcohol into an aldehyde. This enzyme helps to break down alcohol in the body. This enzyme is good as it destroys alcohol and relives from the kick the drink gives. However, this same enzyme has to be inhibited in case of methanol poisoning.
ATPases: These are a set of enzymes like adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphates, etc. They help in the breakdown of the ATP into ADP and thereby release energy.
Cyclooxygenase synthase: Also called COX enzymes or Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. These are of two types as COX-I and COX-II.
COX-I is a constitutional enzyme, while COX-II is an inductive enzyme.
These enzymes synthesize prostaglandins from cell membranes by the use of arachidonic acid.
They are also involved in the formation of different prostaglandins. Hence, when aspirin-like painkiller drugs are given. They inhibit the COX enzyme and prevent further inflammation and pain. This inhibition sometimes has an untoward effect and leads to gastric pain.