Biomolecules are the substances which are present exclusively in the living organisms.
They are formed in the cells and tissues by biological means and are engaged in the physiology and growth.
There are many biomolecules in nature which have important role in biochemistry.
They are present in the plants, animals and humans.
The list of biomolecules include
|Biomolecule||Chemical Class||Characters in physiology||Distribution|
|Glucose||Carbohydrates.||Sweet in taste & provides energy to body||Animals & plants|
|Amino acids, proteins||Proteins||To make up proteins and body building||Animals & plants|
|Oils & Fats||Lipids||Reserve energy.||Animals and plants|
|Cholesterol||steroids biomolecules||Precursor for other molecules||Animals|
|DNA||Nucleic Acid||Regulates Body composition & Physiology||Animals & Plants|
|RNA||Nucleic Acid||Protein synthesis & physiology||Animals & Plants|
|Enzymes||Proteins||As catalysts to aid reactions||Animals & plants|
|Cortisol||Steroid biomolecule||Stress compatibility||Humans|
|Hormones||Amides, lipids, amines||Act as messengers to regulate physiology||Animals & plants|
|Gums||Carbohydrates in nature||Plants|
|Glycosides||Made of carbohydrate + Glycoside moiety||Metabolites but are used in medicine||Plants|
|Tannins||Metabolites||Waste matter for plants but used by humans||Plants|
|Cholesterol||Lipids||Forms cell membrane||Animals|
|Essential oils||Hydrocarbons (volatile oil which are gases at high temperature.||As metabolites. To attract insects for pollination. Humans use as perfumes.||Plants|
|Vitamins A,B,C,D,E & K||Vitamins||To aid in body physiology||Animals & Plants|
But of all those available, only 4 important biomolecules are studied widely.
This is not the end of the list but a brief categorization of biomolecules.
These 4 major biomolecules include.
- Proteins (amino-acids)
- Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, nucleotides).
Other bio-molecules in the body include
Carbohydrates are those which have aldehyde or ketone groups with CH2O configuration.
They are obtained from food and used to generate energy in the body. They break down to carbon dioxide and water.
Proteins are long chain polymers of amino acids. Amino acids are molecules which have both amino and carboxylic groups on the same structure (zwitter ions).They are involved in making of the body cells and tissues. They are metabolized to ammonia and urea and excreted in urine.
Fats have a long chain of fatty acids and glycerol linkage. They are called as glyceryl esters. They are stored in the body as reserve food and during starvation, they form carbohydrates and give energy to the body.
Fatty acid molecule : by Murraystate.edu
Nucleic acids are the molecules formed in the nucleus. They are made of nuclear bases and ribose sugars with phosphodiesterase bonds. They are of two types as DNA and RNA. DNA helps in management of cell physiology by production of RNA. RNA helps in formation of proteins, enzymes and other required components of body.
Neurotransmitters: As the name indicates, these are signal transmitters in the nervous system. See more details on list of neurotransmitters.
Hormones: These are also signal transmitter in the body and used to maintain body physiology. They are quite many hormones in the body and control almost every aspect of living being growth and even mood.
Vitamins: These are bio molecules which are taken in extremely low quantities from food. They in most cases are associated with enzymes to help in the body reactions. They are 5 types like Vit-A, B, C, D, E and K.
Different types of biomolecules:
Biomolecules are of different types and can be classified as
- Based on availability or source.
- Based on their role or purpose in body.
- Based on their chemistry (i.e. bonds and functional groups).
Based on availability: Different types of biomolecules are available in different set of organisms. Not all the bio-molecules of plants are available in animals and vice-verse.
Hence based on the availability they can be divided as those available in
Example: Lignin, chitin are biomolecules present only in plants in plant cell wall. While the same cell wall in bacteria is made of gluco-polysacharrides gluco-peptides are present in bacterial cell wall. While animals do not have a cell wall. Hence there is difference of existence of biomolecules.
Besides these plants have alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, resins, gums etc. which are specific to them.
In animals biomolecules like epinephrine, dopamine like substances are so specific.
Based on purpose: Further these bio-molecules have different role and purpose in body. So their existence in this manner is solely dependent on the purpose.
Ex: Hemoglobin is a protein molecule formed in combination with iron (heme). It is meant for oxygen supply to the body tissues. It is available only in animals and humans. But absent and also not needed for plants and microbes.
Though there are many biomolecules based on their role in body.
There are 4 types of bio-molecules as.
- Food sources.
- Body elements
- Primary metabolites
- Secondary metabolites.
Food sources: These are the substances which act as food materials. They give energy and nutrients to all the living beings on the earth.
Examples include: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins.
Constitutional (Form Body) : These are the molecules which make up the body structure. They also tend to control the body physiology.
Examples include: DNA, RNA, steroids, cholesterol etc. DNA forms the genes and also mRNA, RNA from the body proteins. Steroids are part of many hormones.
Primary metabolites: These are the substances which act as intermediates in the body metabolism and other reactions. They are formed from one or other bio-molecules like food based or constitutional based.
Ex: UDP-Glucuronic acid, keto-glutaric acid etc.
Secondary metabolites: These are mostly end metabolic substances. They are mostly excreted from the body through organs like kidneys.
Ex: Urea, uric acid, ketones etc.
Biomolecules are the natural substance present from birth to death of living being. They are synthesized in the body by use of different elements from nature. Substances like carbon-dioxide, ammonium, water and other inorganic elements from soil contribute to the chemical formation of these molecules. Since some of them are formed by elements like carbon, hydrogen they are classified under organic compounds.
Importance of biomolecules:
Biomolecules are used for different purposes like food, medicine, cosmetics etc. by humans. Below are few uses of them
- Carbohydrates, proteins, fats are used as food stuffs in various forms.
- Volatile oils or essential oils are used for perfumes.
- Compounds like alkaloids, glycosides, tannins are used in medicine.
- Tannins are also used to tan (toughen) the leather in industry.
Besides, protein structure helps to understand receptors, action of drugs and hormones. While DNA structure helps to understand genetic disorders and any related abnormalities.
These biomolecules are vital to the living beings. But they can be harmful and toxic if misused or over stagnated in the body.
What biomolecules are used for energy
Carbohydrates like glucose and other monomers are mainly used for energy in the body.
However, during starvation, body starts to use lipids stored as source of energy. In case of extreme starvation, even aminoacids and other metabolites of TCA cycle are also converted to carbs by the process of gluconeogenesis to generate energy.
What biomolecules are found in the cell membrane
Cell membrane has a lipid bilayer and it consists of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates.
Which biomolecules contain nitrogen and phosphate
Nucleic acids like DNA, RNA and phospholipid are the biomolecules which have both nitrogen and phosphorous.