Biomolecules are substances that are present exclusively in living organisms. There are 4 major biomolecules, while others are minor as
- Nucleic acids.
These major biomolecules are present in almost all the cells and tissues of a living organism.
Besides, there are many minor biomolecules, as included in the table below.
The biomolecules are formed in the cells and tissues by biological means and are engaged in physiology and growth.
There are many biomolecules in nature that have an important role in biochemistry.
They are present in plants, animals, and humans.
The list of biomolecules includes
|Biomolecule||Chemical Class (categories||Character and role||Distribution|
|Glucose||Carbohydrates.||Sweet in taste & provides energy to the body||Animals & plants|
|Amino acids, proteins||Proteins||To make up proteins and bodybuilding||Animals & plants|
|Oils & Fats||Lipids||Reserve energy.||Animals and plants|
|Acetyacetone||Ketone bodies||Source of energy||Animals|
|DNA||Nucleic Acid||Regulates Body composition & Physiology||Animals & Plants|
|RNA||Nucleic Acid||Protein synthesis & physiology||Animals & Plants|
|Cholesterol||steroids biomolecules||Precursor for other molecules||Animals|
|Enzymes||Proteins||As catalysts to aid reactions||Animals & plants|
|Cortisol||Steroid biomolecule||Stress compatibility||Humans|
|Hormones||Amides, lipids, amines||Act as messengers to regulate physiology||Animals & plants|
|Gums||Carbohydrates in nature||Metabolites that can swell with water||Plants|
|Glycosides||Made of carbohydrate + Glycoside moiety||Metabolites are used in medicine||Plants|
|Tannins||Metabolites||Waste matter for plants but used by humans||Plants|
|Cholesterol||Lipids||Forms cell membrane||Animals|
|Essential oils||Hydrocarbons (volatile oil are gases at high temperatures.||As metabolites to attract insects for pollination. Humans use them as perfumes.||Plants|
|Vitamins A,B,C,D,E & K||Vitamins||To aid in body physiology||Animals & Plants|
But of all those available, only 4 important biomolecules are studied widely.
This is not the end of the list but a brief categorization of biomolecules.
These 4 major biomolecules include.
- Proteins (amino-acids)
- Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, nucleotides).
Other bio-molecules in the body include
Carbohydrates are those which have aldehyde or ketone groups with CH2O configuration.
They are obtained from food and used to generate energy in the body. They break down into carbon dioxide and water.
These are long-chain polymers of amino acids. These are the biomolecules having nitrogen along with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Amino acids are the basic units of proteins and these molecules have amino and carboxylic groups in the same structure (zwitter ions).
They are involved in making the body’s cells and tissues. They are metabolized to ammonia and urea and excreted in the urine.
They have a long chain of fatty acids and glycerol linkage.
They are called glyceryl esters. They are stored in the body as reserve food, and during starvation, they form carbohydrates and give energy to the body.
These molecules are found in the cell nucleus.
They are made of nuclear bases and ribose sugars with phosphodiesterase bonds.
They are two types DNA and RNA.
DNA helps in the management of cell physiology through the production of RNA.
RNA helps in the formation of proteins, enzymes, and other required components of the body.
As the name indicates, these are signal transmitters in the nervous system.
They help in the transmission of nerve impulses for the senses, motor effects, and the autonomic nervous system.
See more details on the list of neurotransmitters.
These are also signal transmitters in the body and are used to maintain body physiology. They are quite many hormones in the body that control almost every aspect of living being growth and even mood.
These are biocatalysts in the body. Like hormones, they are also secreted by glands.
These biomolecules are required in low quantities from food.
They, in most cases, are associated with enzymes to help in the body’s reactions. They are 5 types Vit-A, B, C, D, E, and K.
Different types of biomolecules
Biomolecules are of different types and can be classified as
- Based on availability or source.
- Based on their role or purpose in the body.
- Based on their chemistry (i.e., bonds and functional groups).
Based on availability
Different types of biomolecules are available in different sets of organisms.
Not all the bio-molecules of plants are available in animals and vice-versa.
Hence based on the availability, they can be divided into those available in
Example: Lignin and chitin are biomolecules present only in plants in the plant cell wall.
While the same cell wall in bacteria is made of gluco-polysaccharides, gluco-peptides are present in the bacterial cell walls.
At the same time, animals do not have a cell wall. Hence there is a difference in the existence of biomolecules.
Besides, these plants have alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, resins, gums, etc., which are specific to them.
In animals, biomolecules like epinephrine and dopamine-like substances are so specific.
Based on purpose
Further, these bio-molecules have different roles and purposes in the body. So their existence in this manner is solely dependent on the purpose.
Ex: Hemoglobin is a protein molecule formed in combination with iron (heme). It is meant for oxygen supply to the body tissues. It is available only in animals and humans. But absent and also not needed for plants and microbes.
Though there are many biomolecules based on their role in the body.
There are 4 types of bio-molecules as.
- Food sources.
- Body elements
- Primary metabolites
- Secondary metabolites.
Food sources: These are the substances that act as food materials. They give energy and nutrients to all living beings on the earth.
Examples include Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins.
Constitutional (Form Body) : These are the molecules that make up the body structure. They also tend to control the body’s physiology.
Examples include DNA, RNA, steroids, cholesterol, etc. DNA forms the genes and also mRNA and RNA from the body proteins. Steroids are part of many hormones.
Primary metabolites: These are the substances that act as intermediates in the body’s metabolism and other reactions. They are formed from one or other bio-molecules like food based or constitutional-based.
Ex: UDP-Glucuronic acid, keto-glutaric acid etc.
Secondary metabolites: These are the end metabolic substances. They are mostly excreted from the body through organs like kidneys.
Ex: Urea, uric acid, ketones, etc.
Biomolecules are the natural substance present from birth to death of living beings. They are synthesized in the body by the use of different elements from nature. Substances like carbon dioxide, ammonium, water and other inorganic elements from soil contribute to the chemical formation of these molecules. Since some of them are formed by elements like carbon and hydrogen, they are classified under organic compounds.
Importance of biomolecules:
Biomolecules are used for different purposes, like food, medicine, cosmetics, etc., by humans. Below are a few uses for them
- Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are used as foodstuffs in various forms.
- Volatile oils or essential oils are used for perfumes.
- Compounds like alkaloids, glycosides, and tannins are used in medicine.
- Tannins are also used for tanning (toughening) the leather in industry.
Besides, protein structure helps to understand receptors’ actions of drugs and hormones. At the same time, DNA structure helps to understand genetic disorders and any related abnormalities.
These biomolecules are vital to life. But they can be harmful and toxic if misused or stagnated in the body.
What biomolecules are used for energy
Carbohydrates like glucose and other monomers are mainly used for energy in the body.
However, during starvation, the body starts to use lipids stored as a source of energy. In extreme starvation, even amino acids and other metabolites of the TCA cycle are also converted to carbs by the process of gluconeogenesis to generate energy.
What biomolecules are found in the cell membrane
The Cell membrane has a lipid bilayer and it consists of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
Which biomolecules contain nitrogen and phosphate
Nucleic acids like DNA, RNA and phospholipids are biomolecules that have both nitrogen and phosphorous.
Which biomolecule is responsible for insulation and energy storage
Fat is responsible for insulating (preventing) heat loss and storing excess energy from food.
Which biomolecule is a quick source of energy
Acetylacetone is a quick source of energy.